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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Leehu Zysberg and Rotem Hemmel

, 22% had a postsecondary education, 41% had a bachelor’s degree, and the remaining 21% had a higher (master’s or doctorate) level of education. All reported not having any physically debilitating condition. Measures Using a correlational study design, we administered questionnaires online to assess

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Athanasios Mouratidis, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Willy Lens and Georgios Sideridis

Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants’ well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas amotivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.

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Heather A. Starnes, Philip J. Troped, David B. Klenosky and Angela M. Doehring

Purpose:

To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures.

Methods:

A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008.

Results:

52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits.

Conclusion:

There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

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Kathleen Simpson, Beth Parker, Jeffrey Capizzi, Paul Thompson, Priscilla Clarkson, Patty Freedson and Linda Shannon Pescatello

Background:

Little information exists regarding the psychometric properties of question 8 (Q8) of the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to assess exercise. Thus, we conducted 2 studies to assess the validity and test–retest reliability of Q8 among adults.

Methods:

Study 1 participants (n = 419) were 44.1 ± 16.1 years of age. Validity was determined by comparing self-reported hr·d−1 in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) and MET-hr·wk−1 on Q8 at baseline to accelerometer and health/fitness measurements using Spearman rank-order correlations. Study 2 participants (n = 217) were 44.7 ± 16.3 years of age and completed Q8 at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Test–retest reliability was determined using repeated measures analysis of covariance, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and standard error of the measurement (SEM).

Results:

Q8 displayed good criterion validity compared with accelerometer measurements (r = .102 to .200, P < .05) and predictive validity compared with health/fitness measurements (r = –.272 to .203, P < .05). No differences were observed in self-reported hr·d−1 in any of the PA categories at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months (ICC: 0.49 to 0.68; SEM: 1.0 to 2.0; P > .05), indicating good reliability.

Conclusion:

Q8 demonstrates adequate criterion validity, acceptable predictive validity, and satisfactory test–retest reliability and can be used in conjunction with other components of the PPAQ to provide a complete representation of exercise.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

–control studies, cohort studies, CBA, correlation studies or similar. C Systematic reviews of both RCTs and non-RCTs, case–control studies, cohort studies, CBA, correlation studies or similar. Abbreviations: RCA, randomized controlled trials; CBA, controlled before and after. Analysis A narrative synthesis of the

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

, Soenens, & Lens, 2004 ). In the sport domain, correlational studies have shown that when athletes perceive their coach as relying on autonomy-supportive language when providing corrective feedback, they report greater feelings of positive affect and stronger intentions to persevere ( Mouratidis, Lens

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Anna Sverdlik, Robert J. Vallerand, Ariane St-Louis, Michael Sam Tion and Geneviève Porlier

; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007 ). Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Bivariate Correlations—Study 1 ( N  = 625) M SD 1 2 3 4 5 1. Harmonious passion 4.85 1.18 1 2. Obsessive passion 2.99 1.50 .39** 1 3. Positive present 3.78 0.63 .49** .12* 1 4. Positive past 3.44 1.53 .30** .63** .14** 1 5. Positive future 4

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Maria Priscila Wermelinger Ávila, Jimilly Caputo Corrêa, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti and Giancarlo Lucchetti

predictor of depressive symptoms: A correlational study with young adolescents . Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12 ( 1 ), 91 – 104 . PubMed doi:10.1177/1359104507071062 10.1177/1359104507071062 Hjemdal , O. , Vogel , P.A. , Solem , S. , Hagen , K. , & Stiles , T.C. ( 2011 ). The

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Wai-Ting Lo, Kit-Lun Yick, Newman Lau, Lok-Tung Tse, Sun-Pui Ng and Joanne Yip

.E. , & O’Sullivan , S.B. ( 2000 ). Balance and ankle range of motion in community-dwelling women aged 64 to 87 years: a correlational study . Physical Therapy, 80 , 1004 – 1011 . PubMed doi:10.1093/ptj/80.10.1004 Menant , J.C. , Steele , J.R. , Menz , H.B. , & Munro , B.J. ( 2008

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Farnoosh Mafi, Soheil Biglari, Alireza Ghardashi Afousi and Abbas Ali Gaeini

Nutrition, 127 ( 5 ), 990S – 991S . doi:10.1093/jn/127.5.990S 10.1093/jn/127.5.990S Sandhu , J.S. , Trivedi , S.S. , & Shenoy , S. ( 2010 ). A correlation study between plasma myostatin and peak torque strength gains of bilateral knee extensors and flexors after resistance training in healthy