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Dong-Sung Choi, Hwang-Jae Lee, Yong-II Shin, Ahee Lee, Hee-Goo Kim and Yun-Hee Kim

. However, most studies examined the vibration intensity only at a low frequency and did not systematically compare changes in numerous cortical areas or cerebral cortical activity. If optimal vibration frequencies with positive effects on cerebral cortical activation are identified, efficient vibration

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Semyon Slobounov, Robert Simon, Richard Tutwiler and Matthew Rearick

The question regarding the invariant movement properties the central nervous system may organize to accomplish different motor task demands as reflected in EEG remains unsolved. Surprisingly, no systematic electrocortical research in humans has related movement preparation with different movement distance, although this area has been widely investigated in the field of motor control. This study examined whether the amplitude of discrete wrist movements influences the various EEG components both in time and frequency domains. Time-domain averaging techniques and Morlet wavelet transforms of EEG single trials were applied in order to extract three components [BP(0), Nl, and LPS] of movement related potentials (MRP) and to quantify changes in oscillatory activity of the movement-induced EEG waveforms accompanying 20, 40, and 60° unilateral wrist flexion movements. The experimental manipulations induced systematic changes in BP(0) and Nl amplitude along the midline (Fz, Cz, and Pz) with 20° movement showing the most negativity and 60° the least. The dominant energy within a 30-50 frequency cluster from bilateral precentral (C3, Cz, C4), frontal (F3, Fz, F4), and parietal (P3, Pz, P4) areas with maximum at vertex (Cz) also appeared to be sensitive to movement amplitude with the least power observed during 60° wrist flexion. This suggests that movement amplitude may be a controllable variable that is highly related with task-specific cortical activation primarily at frontocentral areas as reflected in EEG.

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

showed lateralized and elevated cortical activation during hemiparetic walking was unavoidably confounded by stroke-related changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the gait cycle, such as decreased swing phase symmetry. Indeed, neuroplastic adaptations to stroke, altered motor commands, and

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

cognitive demands of balance-demanding ambulation. Given prior observations of increased bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activation when maintaining balance ( Mihara, Miyai, Hatakenaka, Kubota, & Sakoda, 2008 ), we expect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to be utilized for maintaining balance while

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János Négyesi, Menno P. Veldman, Kelly M.M. Berghuis, Marie Javet, József Tihanyi and Tibor Hortobágyi

). Functional magnetic resonance image finding of cortical activation by neuromuscular electrical stimulation on wrist extensor muscles . American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 82 ( 1 ), 17 – 20 . PubMed 10.1097/00002060-200301000-00003 Hari , R. , Hämäläinen , H. , Hämäläinen , M

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Satyajit Ambike, Daniela Mattos, Vladimir Zatsiorsky and Mark Latash

subject being aware of the force drop ( Ambike et al., 2015 ). This phenomenon has been interpreted as a reflection of a limitation of the working memory ( Slifkin et al., 2000 ; Vaillancourt & Russell, 2002 ), supported by later studies of cortical activation using both electroencephalogram- ( Poon

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Ebrahim Norouzi, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini, Mohammad Vaezmosavi, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse and Serge Brand

.P. , Meili , L. , Fallon , E.A. , & Hatfield , B.D. ( 2000 ). Expertise differences in cortical activation and gaze behavior during rifle shooting . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22, 167 – 182 . doi:10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 Jasper , H. ( 1958 ). The 10

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Jennifer Campbell, Stephanie Rossit and Matthew Heath

Sciences, 266 , 981 – 985 . 10.1098/rspb.1999.0733 Portin , K. , Vanni , S. , Virsu , V. , & Hari , R. ( 1999 ). Stronger occipital cortical activation to lower than upper visual field stimuli. Neuromagnetic recordings . Experimental Brain Research, 124 , 287 – 294 . PubMed ID: 9989434

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Christopher J. Palmer and Richard E.A. van Emmerik

: 17314243 doi:10.1152/jn.01142.2006 10.1152/jn.01142.2006 Janelle , C.M. , Hillman , C.H. , Apparies , R.J. , Murray , N.P. , Meili , L. , Fallon , E.A. , … Hatfield , B.D. ( 2000 ). Expertise differences in cortical activation and gaze behavior during rifle shooting . Journal of Sport