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Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Bradley D. Hatfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

performance RCT Note . RCT = randomized controlled trials. Frontal theta power, especially frontal midline theta (Fmθ), was considered an indicator for the investigation of top-down attentional processes. Neurophysiological evidence has suggested that Fmθ is generated by cortical activation in the anterior

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

; Sato et al., 2007 ; Shibuya, 2011 ; Shibuya, Kuboyama, & Tanaka, 2014 ; Takeda et al., 2007 ). It has been speculated that higher force intensity can cause higher cortical activation during grip tasks in young adults ( Dai, Liu, Sahgal, Brown, & Yue, 2001 ; Shibuya et al., 2014 ), and the level of

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.2.145 Expertise Differences in Cortical Activation and Gaze Behavior during Rifle Shooting Christopher M. Janelle * Charles H. Hillman * Ross J. Apparies * Nicholas P. Murray * Launi Meili * Elizabeth A. Fallon * Bradley D. Hatfield * 6 2000 22 2 167 182 10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 Reexamining the

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

resultant increased fitness levels, effectively altered patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task. Indeed, significant improvements in cortical activation patterns in the language areas associated with verbal Generativity (right inferior frontal gyrus) were observed in those aerobic

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Christopher J. Keating, Juan  Á. Párraga Montilla, Pedro Á. Latorre Román and Rafael Moreno del Castillo

Near-infrared spectroscopy and treadmill submaximal (Bruce) HIIT and MICT proved to be superior to RT for task-efficient cerebral oxygenation and improved oxygen utilization during cortical activation in older individuals. Currie et al. ( 2013 ) VO 2 peak, brachial artery endothelial function GXT and

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

activation, and less alpha power in the left frontal region (i.e., more cortical activation) relative to the right frontal region is indicative of approach motivation ( Coan & Allen, 2004 ). In previous research, greater left frontal activity (i.e., reduced left alpha power) has been associated with approach

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

in addition to being beneficial for their physical and mental health. 11 Finally, in healthy adult populations, being immersed in shallow swimming pools has been shown to stimulate brain activity and to enhance cortical activation, which would suggest that water immersion may be employed as a viable

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Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith and Matthew B. Pontifex

.tics.2009.06.005 Carlson , S. , Martinkauppi , S. , Rämä , P. , Salli , E. , Korvenoja , A. , & Aronen , H.J. ( 1998 ). Distribution of cortical activation during visuospatial n-back tasks as revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging . Cerebral Cortex, 8 , 743 – 752 . PubMed doi

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

, A. ( 1989 ). Patterns of cortical activation during planning of voluntary movement . Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 72 ( 3 ), 250 – 258 . PubMed ID: 2465128 doi:10.1016/0013-4694(89)90250-2 10.1016/0013-4694(89)90250-2 Powney , M. , Williamson , P. , Kirkham , J