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Christopher M. Janelle, Charles H. Hillman, Ross J. Apparies, Nicholas P. Murray, Launi Meili, Elizabeth A. Fallon and Bradley D. Hatfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether variability in gaze behavior and cortical activation would differentiate expert (n = 12) and nonexpert (n = 13) small-bore rifle shooters. Spectral-activity and eye-movement data were collected concurrently during the course of a regulation indoor sequence of 40 shots from the standing position. Experts exhibited significantly superior shooting performance, as well as a significantly longer quiet eye period preceding shot execution than did nonexperts. Additionally, expertise interacted with hemispheric activation levels: Experts demonstrated a significant increase in left-hemisphere alpha and beta power, accompanied by a reduction in right-hemisphere alpha and beta power, during the preparatory period just prior to the shot. Nonexperts exhibited similar hemispheric asymmetry, but to a lesser extent than did experts. Findings suggest systematic expertise-related differences in ocular and cortical activity during the preparatory phase leading up to the trigger pull that reflects more optimal organization of the neural structures needed to achieve high-level performance.

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Chih-Yen Chang and Tsung-Min Hung

performance RCT Note . RCT = randomized controlled trials. Frontal theta power, especially frontal midline theta (Fmθ), was considered an indicator for the investigation of top-down attentional processes. Neurophysiological evidence has suggested that Fmθ is generated by cortical activation in the anterior

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

; Sato et al., 2007 ; Shibuya, 2011 ; Shibuya, Kuboyama, & Tanaka, 2014 ; Takeda et al., 2007 ). It has been speculated that higher force intensity can cause higher cortical activation during grip tasks in young adults ( Dai, Liu, Sahgal, Brown, & Yue, 2001 ; Shibuya et al., 2014 ), and the level of

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Semyon Slobounov, Robert Simon, Richard Tutwiler and Matthew Rearick

The question regarding the invariant movement properties the central nervous system may organize to accomplish different motor task demands as reflected in EEG remains unsolved. Surprisingly, no systematic electrocortical research in humans has related movement preparation with different movement distance, although this area has been widely investigated in the field of motor control. This study examined whether the amplitude of discrete wrist movements influences the various EEG components both in time and frequency domains. Time-domain averaging techniques and Morlet wavelet transforms of EEG single trials were applied in order to extract three components [BP(0), Nl, and LPS] of movement related potentials (MRP) and to quantify changes in oscillatory activity of the movement-induced EEG waveforms accompanying 20, 40, and 60° unilateral wrist flexion movements. The experimental manipulations induced systematic changes in BP(0) and Nl amplitude along the midline (Fz, Cz, and Pz) with 20° movement showing the most negativity and 60° the least. The dominant energy within a 30-50 frequency cluster from bilateral precentral (C3, Cz, C4), frontal (F3, Fz, F4), and parietal (P3, Pz, P4) areas with maximum at vertex (Cz) also appeared to be sensitive to movement amplitude with the least power observed during 60° wrist flexion. This suggests that movement amplitude may be a controllable variable that is highly related with task-specific cortical activation primarily at frontocentral areas as reflected in EEG.

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.2.145 Expertise Differences in Cortical Activation and Gaze Behavior during Rifle Shooting Christopher M. Janelle * Charles H. Hillman * Ross J. Apparies * Nicholas P. Murray * Launi Meili * Elizabeth A. Fallon * Bradley D. Hatfield * 6 2000 22 2 167 182 10.1123/jsep.22.2.167 Reexamining the

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Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens

showed lateralized and elevated cortical activation during hemiparetic walking was unavoidably confounded by stroke-related changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the gait cycle, such as decreased swing phase symmetry. Indeed, neuroplastic adaptations to stroke, altered motor commands, and

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

resultant increased fitness levels, effectively altered patterns of brain activity during a semantic verbal fluency task. Indeed, significant improvements in cortical activation patterns in the language areas associated with verbal Generativity (right inferior frontal gyrus) were observed in those aerobic

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

cognitive demands of balance-demanding ambulation. Given prior observations of increased bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activation when maintaining balance ( Mihara, Miyai, Hatakenaka, Kubota, & Sakoda, 2008 ), we expect the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to be utilized for maintaining balance while

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Amber M. Leiker, Anupriya Pathania, Matthew W. Miller and Keith R. Lohse

activation, and less alpha power in the left frontal region (i.e., more cortical activation) relative to the right frontal region is indicative of approach motivation ( Coan & Allen, 2004 ). In previous research, greater left frontal activity (i.e., reduced left alpha power) has been associated with approach

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Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark and Louise M. Burke

.neuroimage.2007.10.061 17. Haase L , Cerf-Ducastel B , Murphy C . Cortical activation in response to pure taste stimuli during the physiological states of hunger and satiety . Neuroimage . 2009 ; 44 ( 3 ): 1008 – 1021 . PubMed ID: 19007893 doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.044 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008