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James Skinner and Allan Edwards

Although qualitative research approaches such as ethnography have been applied to the field of sport (e.g., Bricknell, 2001; Hughson and Hallinan, 2001) Sparkes (2003) has suggested that it was not until the late 1990s that sport researchers began to embrace ethnographic frameworks underpinned by critical and postmodern theories. As such, the value of these research designs has not been fully realized. The benefit for sport management researchers in applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches is that it sharpens their critical consciousness. This article therefore develops an argument for applying critical and postmodern thought to ethnographic approaches to sport management research. In doing this we (a) provide a brief historical sketch of social science research paradigms; (b) outline the benefits of applying critical and postmodern thought to sport management ethnographic research; (c) present examples of current sport and sport management ethnographic research that applies critical and postmodern frameworks; and (d) provide insight into the concerns that sport management scholars should consider when applying ethnographic research designs that embrace the tenets of postmodernism. Through this discussion we conclude that, although ethnographic approaches inspired by critical and postmodern thought are not the panacea to solve all research problems, if applied correctly they can only further enhance out knowledge of the research issue under investigation.

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Kim Toffoletti, Catherine Palmer and Sumaya Samie

running, can contribute to de-colonization. Here, the authors bring an embodied dimension to the lived experience of de-colonization, tracing out the causes and consequences of the oppression of Canada’s First Nation peoples. For Indigenous people, “decolonization entails developing a critical

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Emma Seal and Emma Sherry

to challenging power structure (see Chawansky, 2011 ; Forde & Frisby, 2015 ; Hayhurst, 2013 ). However, stakeholders are open to reflection and change, and engaging men in critical consciousness-raising are key ways this could evolve. Program Approach/Capacity Building The GET program is driven by

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Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles

long history of colonization and returning well-being to our people. …decolonization entails developing a critical consciousness about the cause(s) of our oppression, the distortion of history, our own collaboration, and the degrees to which we have internalized colonialist ideas and practices

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Ajhanai Channel Inez Newton

, and Education as Singer captures the shared experience of educators and administrators both assuming the intellectual curiosities and abilities of Black male athletes by setting low standards as well as educators assisting in the development of critical consciousness in Black male athletes. The co

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Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky

explains: This new model is a great way to navigate those issues of cultural imperialism and cultural hierarchies within the organisation where generally westerners held the highest paid positions. I think that model definitely reflects a critical consciousness on Skateistan’s part. The key point here is