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Nils Vikander, Tor Solbakken and Margarita Vikander

The propose of the study was to investigate gender patterns in psychological/behavioral characteristics of elite Cross County skiers. Twentyeight athletes who won medals in Olympic Games or World Championships were accessed using the Behavior Inventories for Cross County Skiers (Rushall and Vikander, 1987). Nine clusters common to both men and women were identified as: relationship with other athletes; relationship with the coach; relationship to significant others; training factors; pre-competition factors; competition factors; reactions to things that go wrong; considerations about the sport, and things champions like about cross country skiing. With this inquiry we have uncovered both gender similarities and differences among the world’s foremost cross country skiers in psychological dimensions as well as in the behavioral arena.

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Brent S. Rushall, Marty Hall, Laurent Roux, Jack Sasseville and Amy C. Rushall

The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of instructions—to think particular types of thoughts—on the cross-country skiing performances of elite skiers. Eighteen members of the Canadian Cross-Country Ski Team served as subjects. Instructions were given to plan and think particular types of thoughts while skiing, namely task-relevant statements, mood words, and positive self-statements. Performances on a standard test track under thought control conditions were compared to similar efforts under “normal” (control) thinking. Thirteen subjects also recorded heart rates at the completion of each trial. A balanced order design of two replications of each condition was employed in each of the three experiments. Sixteen subjects improved in all conditions whereas two subjects improved in only one condition. Heart rates were marginally higher and statistically significant in each experimental condition compared to the control condition. Performance improvements of more than 3% were registered under each thought content condition, even though all subjects reported that they were not aware of any effort differential. That performance improvements of this magnitude could be achieved in athletes of such a caliber indicates the value of attempts to use the particular forms of thoughts employed in this study for improving cross-country skiing performance.

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni, Demir Barić and Sebastià Mas-Alòs

supporting areas was based on the sectorial maps included on the official web page: . a For instance, rivers for fishing. b Snowshoeing, snow mountaineering, and cross-country skiing. Data Collection The data used in this study

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Estela Farías-Torbidoni and Demir Barić

hiking (slow walking), hiking (with rhythm), picking mushrooms, off-road motocross driving, snowshoeing, downhill skiing, cross-country skiing, mountaineering, mountain biking, and trail running. The list also included an option labeled “staying at the entrance/being inactive.” In the third part

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Mariana R. Silva, Cristine L. Alberton, Caroline O. Braga and Stephanie S. Pinto

training sessions were as follows: stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), and cross-country skiing (CCS). This study adopted exercises that are often performed during water-based programs, which are the focus of many investigations in the water-based training field 15 , 17 – 19 , 23 at the HR AT

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Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton

living with MCI or early dementia: “I used to do it [cross country ski], but, then again, my wife has to drive me and she doesn’t cross country ski and, well, she’s not so keen on me going by myself in case I fall” (PWMD1-1). Community: Accessible planning facilitates participation and inclusion Safe and

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Lei Zhou, Marie-Anne Gougeon and Julie Nantel

older adults and individuals with balance and gait deficits. NW is performed with poles and consists of walking while moving the arms in a cross-country skiing motion. A recent study assessing the effect of NW in individuals with PD showed that a 6-week NW training program led to larger improvement in

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Aysha M. Thomas, Kayleigh M. Beaudry, Kimbereley L. Gammage, Panagiota Klentrou and Andrea R. Josse

from before entering university (ie, their time in their final grade of high school) compared with university (measured at the end of their first academic year), among males and females. Endurance activities included biking, cross-country skiing, floor hockey, jogging/running, ice skating, in

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Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner

, basketball, cross country skiing, judo, roller skating, vigorous swimming, vigorous long distance bicycling)   _________ [Record times per week]   _________ [Record minutes per time] b  b) Moderate exercise (not exhausting)    (e.g., fast walking, baseball, tennis, easy bicycling, volleyball, badminton

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Thomas A. Perks

, skating , downhill skiing , jogging or running , golfing , exercise class or aerobics , cross-country skiing , bowling , baseball or softball , tennis , weight training , fishing , volleyball , yoga , or tai chi , and up to 3 other activities. Minor changes were made to this list of