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Nils Vikander, Tor Solbakken and Margarita Vikander

The propose of the study was to investigate gender patterns in psychological/behavioral characteristics of elite Cross County skiers. Twentyeight athletes who won medals in Olympic Games or World Championships were accessed using the Behavior Inventories for Cross County Skiers (Rushall and Vikander, 1987). Nine clusters common to both men and women were identified as: relationship with other athletes; relationship with the coach; relationship to significant others; training factors; pre-competition factors; competition factors; reactions to things that go wrong; considerations about the sport, and things champions like about cross country skiing. With this inquiry we have uncovered both gender similarities and differences among the world’s foremost cross country skiers in psychological dimensions as well as in the behavioral arena.

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Jan Haut, Freya Gassmann, Eike Emrich, Tim Meyer and Christian Pierdzioch

(winning two gold and three silver medals) or Norwegians Marit Björgen (cross-country skiing, three gold medals) and Ole Einar Björndalen (biathlon, two gold medals), whose victories in Sochi made them the most successful winter athletes ever ( Angelini et al., 2017 ). Hong and Oh ( 2017 ) further explore

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Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot and Andrea Geurin

that are used throughout the Results section. Table 3 Respondent Breakdown ( N  = 53) Female Male No. Sport Age No. Sport Age 1 Synchronized swimming 22 7 Cross-country skiing 26 2 Synchronized swimming 19 13 Wrestling 24 3 Synchronized swimming 21 15 Weightlifting 23 4 Rhythmic gymnastics 25 17

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Joshua Woods

throughout life in low-impact sports and recreation such as swimming, walking, fishing, cross-country skiing, and disc golf ( Son, Kerstetter, & Mowen, 2008 ). Some evidence suggests that disc golf attracts participants from all age groups. For instance, the 2017 State of Disc Golf Survey showed that almost

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Heather Kennedy, Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

participation. This mirrors industry figures showing a decline in running participation, whereas participation in other outdoor activities rises. For example, outdoor participation trends show a 3-year growth (from 2013 to 2016) in other recreation activities including stand-up paddle boarding (61.6%), cross-country