Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is among the leading causes of sudden death during sport and physical activity. However, previous research has shown that EHS is 100% survivable when rapidly recognized and appropriate treatment is provided. Establishing policies to address issues related to the prevention and treatment of EHS, including heat acclimatization, environment-based activity modification, body temperature assessment using rectal thermometry, and immediate, onsite treatment using cold-water immersion attenuates the risk of EHS mortality and morbidity. This article provides an overview of the current evidence regarding EHS prevention and management. The transfer of scientific knowledge to clinical practice has shown great success for saving EHS patients. Further efforts are needed to implement evidence-based policies to not only mitigate EHS fatality but also to reduce the overall incidence of EHS.
Douglas J. Casa, Yuri Hosokawa, Luke N. Belval, William M. Adams and Rebecca L. Stearns
Ray Gravell first achieved fame as a member of the great Welsh rugby team of the 1970s. After his playing career was over he moved into the national media, working as an actor and a broadcaster. This article examines obituaries and other newspaper accounts after the death of Gravell and the ways in which celebrity is consumed and (re)presented. It looks at cultures of commemoration in both the mourning and the celebration of this figure and analyzes how the past and the present are (re)presented in a complex interplay of imagining the nation. In an analysis informed by social identities research it explores Gravell’s symbolic significance and positions him as the last Prince of Wales.
Hans C. Rasmussen
raquette among whites died out in the early 1880s. While Yankees knew of the relatively young sport of lacrosse, the only game they knew of by the name of “racket” was racquetball. 31 The Negligible Modernization and Fitful Death of Raquette in New Orleans An imaginative newspaperman once told the story of
Amanda Cosgrove and Toni Bruce
In the face of growing scholarly concern about whiteness, and following Denzin’s (1996) argument that “those who control the media control a society’s discourses about itself” (p. 319), it becomes vital to interrogate and map what is at stake in specific representations of whiteness that gain purchase and mobilize the nation in shared ways. In death, America’s Cup sailor and adventurer Sir Peter Blake was held up as a New Zealand hero representative of a “true” national character. We argue that in the context of marked changes in the racial, political, and economic landscape of New Zealand, Blake’s unexpected death represented an important moment in the symbolic (re)production of historically dominant but increasingly contested notions of national character that are synonymous with white masculinity. We conclude that, as long as the centrality of whiteness is under threat, we are likely to see the ongoing rearticulation of nostalgic visions of nationalism.
Jaime Schultz, W. Larry Kenney and Andrew D. Linden
Douglas R. Anderson
I argue here that we, as a culture, are allowing physical play and playful movement to die. Following Friedrich Schiller, I argue for the importance of physical play for a liberated life. I call on those in the field of kinesiology to consider revising our cultural habits through the teaching of play not by way of abstract concepts but by way of playful experiences.
John R. Mitrano
While researchers have examined the economic effects of sport franchise relocation on cities and municipalities, little research has explored the social psychological effects of relocation on the fans from the cities being abandoned. Through the use of “Virtual Participant Observation” and “Inter(net)viewing,” this paper examines the meanings fans attach to franchise relocation decisions and how they make sense of and adjust to the impending loss of a civic institution such as a sport franchise. The paper also examines the root metaphors created and used by fans in the expression of their feelings, experiences, and interpretations of (a) the relocation decision, (b) the relationship of the owners and team, and (c) the relationship of the fans and team. These metaphors enable fans to make sense of a particularly disruptive situation (i.e., franchise relocation)—a decision which violates normative American cultural assumptions, core tenets, and values.
Nicholas L. Parsons and Michael J. Stern
The purpose of this paper is to determine how the collective memory of a baseball player’s contributions to his sport changes posthumously. We seek to examine if levels of veneration accorded to an athlete depend on whether he is alive or deceased, the timing of his death, and type of death he experienced. Building upon theories of cultural valorization, we propose that collective efforts to remember retired athletes are greater if those athletes have passed on. More explicitly, we argue that a player’s death supplements his lifetime achievements in posthumous efforts to construct and maintain his memory. We analyze the history of voting conducted by the Baseball Writers Association of America (BBWAA) on players eligible for induction into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. The results suggest that a variety of performance and recognition measures affect the amount of votes a player receives. As predicted, dying and age of death exert a powerful influence on votes received toward entry into the National Baseball Hall of Fame. However, when hitters and pitchers are analyzed separately, we find partial support for our propositions.
Disengagement from sport is examined from a phenomenological perspective. This perspective permits committed adult athletes to explain in their own time and their own words why they ceased participating in formally organized competitive sport. Thirty-four former advanced and elite athletes were interviewed. The constructed case study method provides the opportunity to examine causal relationships among all factors leading to disengagement from sport, and follows a “holistic” method of analyzing interviews (cognitive mapping). Former athletes identified the problem of settling into a job and financial constraints as the primary factors influencing their disengagement from sport. Most athletes left sport voluntarily and experienced elements of rebirth rather than social death.