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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall

soccer academies. It also examined how in this context burnout and depression might be related to perfectionism among junior athletes. We first define and describe athlete burnout, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism, as well as review research examining them in sport. We then discuss research that

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, David Coppel and Stanley Herring

Mental health disorders often present during the adolescent years ( Kessler et al., 2005 ) and are not uncommon, with nearly one in ten U.S. adolescents experiencing clinically significant depression or anxiety annually ( Avenevoli et al., 2015 ) and 4% having ever attempted suicide ( Nock et

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

There is strong evidence that physical activity and exercise have a positive effect on mental health ( Paluska & Schwenk, 2000 ; Ströhle et al., 2007 ). One might assume, therefore, that competitive athletes are less susceptible to mental disorders such as depression. A recent meta-analysis and a

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Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir

athletes transition into elite sports ( Rice et al., 2016 ). It is not until recently however that the prevalence of mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, have been systematically explored among athlete populations. Previous studies have reported highly variable prevalence rates in

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Michael Amrhein, Harald Barkhoff and Elaine M. Heiby

Although research on the psychological correlates of ocean surfing is scarce, substantial anecdotal evidence suggests that the sport offers a uniquely positive experience. Prior research has demonstrated that surfers report fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than normative groups, but no explanation has been identified. Greater spirituality has been correlated with lower depression and anxiety, and many surfers have described surfing as a spiritual experience, indicating a potential connection. One hundred surfers were recruited from the Hawaiian Islands and the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Participants reported their surfing habits and levels of their spiritual surfing experiences. Standardized tests were used to measure participants’ spirituality, depression, and anxiety levels. Results indicated that surfers reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than most available normative groups. Results also demonstrated that greater spirituality is associated with less depression and more spiritual surfing experiences.

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Benjamin J. Levin and Jim Taylor

Surfers are a heterogeneous population with a common interest in riding waves. Surfers qualitatively describe the surfing sensation as a hybrid of meditative and athletic experience. Numerous empirical studies link both meditative experience and exercise with reduced incidence of depression and anxiety; this potentially suggests that surfers may endorse fewer symptoms of either disorder. One hundred surfers (N = 100) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and a demographics questionnaire. Results indicate that surfers reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and employed emotion-based coping responses to stressful situations significantly less than the general populace. Surfers also employed avoidance-based coping strategies more frequently than the general populace. Future study should evaluate causal relationships between surfing and incidence of depression and anxiety.

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Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

, the aim of the current study was to examine the association between sexual violence experiences and symptoms of depression and well-being in athletes. It was also hoped that the study might further our understanding about the influence of two contextual factors of the incidents, namely experiences of

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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

). However, less attention has been paid to the coping strategies employed by elite athletes to deal with mental health issues (MHIs) such as depression. This lack of emphasis is somewhat surprising given that MHIs in elite athletes have attracted considerable attention in recent years ( Gouttebarge, Backx

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris and Noora J. Ronkainen

issues as non-athletes ( Gorczynski et al., 2017 ; Rice et al., 2016 ), there is also support for lower levels ( Armstrong et al., 2015 ) and higher levels ( Gouttebarge et al., 2019 ) in athletes than in non-athletes. In terms of specific mental health illnesses, depression has been one of the main

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

 al., 2007 ). However, there has been inconsistency in study findings ( Newman, Howells, & Fletcher, 2016 ) with some studies reporting similar rates of depression in student-athletes as compared to the general college population ( Storch et al., 2005 ; Wolanin et al., 2016 ; Yang et al., 2007 ) whereas