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Geoffrey D. Broadhead and Gable E. Church

Intact classes of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children were administered the Physical Dexterity scales of the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment and the short form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Separate discriminant analyses of each data set revealed that the subjects comprised four distinct levels of motor performance. Although overall predicted correct classification was above 65%, misclassifications occurred in each class. Differences resulting from the separate analyses suggest differential program placement for physical education. There is a tendency for the Physical Dexterity data to predict higher levels of motor functioning than the Motor Proficiency data for half of the mentally retarded children.

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Ulla Lahtinen, Pauli Rintala and Antero Malin

Physical performance of Finnish adolescents (33 females, 44 males) with moderate intellectual disability (ID) was studied over a 30-year period. This study is an extension of Lahtinen’s previous work on documenting the performance of individuals with intellectual disabilities over time. This study consisted of analyzing data from a total of four data collection periods (1973, 1979, 1996, and 2003 in which participants ranged in age from 11-16, 17-22, 34-39 and 41-46 years old, respectively). Improvement from early to late adolescence, and decline during adulthood in abdominal strength/endurance, static balance, and manual dexterity were identified. The male adults with ID were moderately overweight (BMI), but the females with ID were obese. The IQ effect was significant on balance and manual dexterity. The gender differences in adulthood were significant, but differences were not noted for Down syndrome when controlling for IQ.

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Eva D’Hondt, Benedicte Deforche, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Matthieu Lenoir

The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5–10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Scores for balance (p < .01) and ball skills (p < .05) were significantly better in normal-weight and overweight children as compared with their obese counterparts. A similar trend was found for manual dexterity (p < .10). This study demonstrates that general motor skill level is lower in obese children than in normal-weight and overweight peers.

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Robbi Beyer

The motor proficiency of 56 boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was compared with that of 56 boys with learning disabilities (LD); both groups were divided into two age groups, 7 to 8 years and 9 to 12 years. Boys with ADHD were taking Ritalin and attending public schools. Boys with LD were medication-free and attending private schools for LD. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP–LF) was used to measure balance, bilateral coordination, strength, upper limb coordination, response speed, visual-motor coordination, and upper limb speed and dexterity. MANOVA revealed significant main effects for condition and age. Subsequent univariate ANOVAs revealed (a) expected age differences on all but one item and (b) significantly poorer performance for boys with ADHD than boys with LD on all variables except balance, upper limb coordination, and response speed.

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Esther Hartman, Suzanne Houwen and Chris Visscher

This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine their active involvement in organized sports. The deaf children had significantly more borderline and definite motor problems than the normative sample: 62% (manual dexterity), 52% (ball skills), and 45% (balance skills). Participation in organized sports was reported by 43% of the children; these children showed better performance on ball skills and dynamic balance. This study demonstrates the importance of improving deaf children’s motor skill performance, which might contribute positively to their sports participation.

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Mathias H. Kosack, Walter Staiano, Rasmus Folino, Mads B. Hansen and Simon Lønbro

, Hankey J . Mental fatigue negatively influences manual dexterity and anticipation timing but not repeated high-intensity exercise performance in trained adults . Res Sport Med . 2015 ; 23 ( 1 ): 1 – 13 . doi:10.1080/15438627.2014.975811 10.1080/15438627.2014.975811 12. Martin K , Thompson KG

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Joseph J. Gruber, John W. Hall, Stephen E. McKay, Laurie L. Humphries and Richard J. Kryscio

This investigation explored the belief that physical activity therapy has a neurological value as part of the total treatment of mental patients. Twenty-two adolescents hospitalized with depression were administered a battery of diagnostic tests. Relationships among the Braininks-Oseretsky Motor Proficiency test (12 subtest scores) and the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (14 subtest scores) were examined. All patients were nonmedicated and on a neurotransmitter controUed diet for 48 hours prior to testing. Results indicate that certain forms of motor performance can be predicted from measures indicative of both structure and fonction of brain behavior. The multiple R2 ranged from .80 to .06, with variance in balance, bilateral coordination, and fine motor skills being predicted from the receptive speech, tactile, right hemisphere, left hemisphere, expressive speech, motor, and rhythm measures of brain behavior. When explaining neuropsychological battery scores from motor proficiency scores, the R2 ranged from .65 to .28, with intelligence and expressive speech being predicted from the gross motor composite, upper limb speed, and dexterity, balance, and fine motor composite scores, respectively.

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Anne Jobling

This longitudinal research examined the development of motor proficiency in 99 children with Down syndrome born in Brisbane from 1973 to 1984. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) was used to assess motor proficiency, and the Stanford-Binet L-M was used to obtain a measure of general intelligence. Although significant progress on the BOTMP subtest scores occurred with age for most subtests, this was related to mental age (MA) rather than chronological age (CA). Progress related to CA was associated with upper limb coordination and upper limb speed and dexterity subtests from CA 10 to 12 years, not from 12 to 16 years. There were considerable inter- and intraindividual differences on subtest items. A cluster analysis of 263 assessments revealed no one profile of strengths and weaknesses. Two distinct profiles were found with high scores in either the visual–motor or the running speed and agility subtests, with balance scores at a low level of proficiency in both clusters. Across the study groupings, sex differences were also evident.

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren

measuring specific gross and fine motor skills. The motor domains (and subtests) include (a) fine manual control (fine motor precision and fine motor integration subtests), (b) manual coordination (manual dexterity and upper-limb coordination subtests), (c) body coordination (bilateral coordination and

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Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann and Susan Hillier

Children — Second Edition (MABC-2), Age Band 1 (for children aged 3–6 years) was used to assess fine and gross motor skill performance. The assessment comprises eight items including three manual dexterity tasks (coin posting, bead threading, and drawing); two object control tasks (catching/throwing a