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Jonathan Leo Ng, Chris Button, Dave Collins, Susan Giblin and Gavin Kennedy

tentatively proposed as: 1) stability, 2) dexterity), 3) locomotion, and 4) object-control. Overall, results from the factorial analysis highlight the multidimensional nature of movement competence and the interdependence between its various constructs ( Bril & Brenière, 1993 ; Davids et al., 2000 ; Rudd et

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

levels. A custom LabVIEW (LabVIEW, National Instruments, Austin, TX) program provided real-time visual feedback of the applied force made by each digit. Purdue Pegboard Test The Purdue Pegboard Test was developed in 1948, and it was used to examine the manual dexterity and bimanual coordination of the

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Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, Martin Stevens and Gertrudis I.J.M. Kempen

This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were measured in participants age 57 years or older: 1 sample recruited through media announcements (passively recruited) and 1 sample recruited through personal contact (actively recruited). Classifications on a 5-point scale based on norms were cross-tabulated. Compared with the actively recruited sample, performance of the passively recruited sample was significantly better on all tests except, for women, hip flexibility and manual dexterity. Cross-tabulation of the 2 classifications showed that percentages of agreement varied from 27.4% to 87.4%. Cohen's Kappa varied from .11 to .84. Caution should be used when giving feedback on test performance and subsequently making physical activity recommendations if norms are based on the performance of passively recruited older adults.

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Laura S. Ho, Harriet G. Williams and Emily A.W. Hardwick

The study’s objective was to examine the health status, physical activity behaviors, and performance-based functional abilities of individuals classified as being at high or low risk for frailty and to determine which of these characteristics discriminates between the 2 groups. Participants were 78 community-dwelling individuals with an average age of 74 years; 37 were categorized as being at high risk and 42 at low risk for frailty. Logistic-regression analysis indicated that individuals classified as being at high risk for frailty were more likely to have visited the doctor more than 3 times in the past year, experienced a cardiac event, taken more than 4 medications a day, and participated in little or no physical activity. High-risk individuals were more likely to have poor balance, difficulty with mobility, decreased range of motion, poor unimanual dexterity, and difficulty performing activities of daily living than were those classified as being at low risk for frailty.

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Marieke J.G. van Heuvelen, Gertrudis I.J.M. Kempen, Johan Ormel and Mathieu H.G. de Greef

To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests included endurance, flexibility, strength, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time. The self-report evaluation assessed selected individual subcomponents of fitness and used both peers and absolute standards as reference. The results showed that compared to performance-based tests, the self-report items were more strongly interrelated and they less effectively evaluated the different subdomains of physical fitness. Corresponding performance-based tests and self-report items were weakly to moderately associated. All self-report items were related most strongly with the performance-based endurance test. Apparently. older people tend to estimate overall fitness, in which endurance plays an important part, rather than individual subcomponents of Illness. Therefore, the self-report measures have limited validity as predictors of performance-based physical fitness.

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Lindsey Brett, Victoria Traynor, Paul Stapley and Shahla Meedya

officer, interviewee 9). During the intervention stage of the RCT, staff and family carers observed improvements in the physical abilities of the individuals that had been randomly allocated to the intervention groups. Areas identified included mobility, function, dexterity, independence, pain, falls, and

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Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Mary P. Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, Robert J. Kowalsky and Jennifer S. Brach

finger dexterity similar to a stretchable watchband. In addition, participants were noted to have difficulty with application of monitors that required management of a tight clip on the device for securing the monitor to the waist and were unable to access the step display in the pedometers that required

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear and Ralph Buck

-Second Chair Stand Test assesses functional lower extremity strength by counting the number of times a participant can come to a full stand from sitting in 30 s ( Jones, Rikli, & Beam, 1999 ). (f) Manual dexterity: Nine-Hole Peg Test assesses upper extremity function by timing how quickly a participant

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Sandra Silva-Santos, Amanda Santos, Michael Duncan, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota

, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007 ). This test battery was developed as a means of identifying those at risk of motor impairment and has been widely adopted for this purpose ( Smits-Engelsman, Niemeijer, & van Waelvelde, 2011 ). The MABC-2 is designed for children from 3 to 16 years and assesses manual dexterity

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Lena Hübner, Solveig Vieluf, Ben Godde and Claudia Voelcker-Rehage

years of age ( M  = 23.26, SD  = 2.68) were included in further analysis. The Purdue Pegboard Test (model 32020; Lafayette Instruments, Lafayette, IN; Tiffin & Asher, 1948 ) was performed to assess clinical manual dexterity of the right hand. All YA and OA scored within the normative values for the