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Christine L. Wells

The following article is a synthesis of current physiological research regarding women and physical activity with an emphasis on what that research means in regard to both performance and health. The first part is a discussion of the effects of heavy physical training on the menstrual cycle, with particular emphasis on the detrimental effects of hypoestrogenemia on bone. The second part of the paper is a discussion of the generally high prevalence of inactivity in American women and its relationship to the development of obesity, type II diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, heart disease and cancer. The final section of the paper consists of a call for interdisciplinary and collaborative research by women investigators on issues of major importance to women.

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Melanie M. Adams and Diane L. Gill

Even with adequate levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior contributes to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Reducing sedentary behavior through increased daily movements, not solely exercise, can reduce health risks; particularly for women who are inactive and overweight. This study examined an intervention to increase overweight women’s self-efficacy for reducing sedentary behavior. Volunteers (M age =58.5 yrs, M BMI =36) were waitlisted (n = 24) or enrolled in the intervention (n = 40), called On Our Feet, which combined face-to-face sessions and e-mail messages over 6 weeks. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured by accelerometer and self-report. A 4-item survey assessed self-efficacy. Process evaluations included participant ratings of intervention components and open-ended questions. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed no changes in accelerometer-determined physical activity or sedentary behavior, but a significant multivariate interaction was found for self-reported sitting and physical activity, F(3,60) = 3.65, p = .02. Intervention participants increased both light and moderate physical activity and both groups decreased sedentary behavior. Self-efficacy decreased for all at midpoint, but intervention recipients rebounded at post. A moderately strong relationship (r = .48, p = .01) between midpoint self-efficacy and reduced sedentary behavior was found. Participants rated the pedometer, intervention emails, and goal setting as effective and highly used. Open-ended responses pointed to barriers of required sitting and a need to match intervention components to women’s lives. Community-based interventions for reducing sedentary behavior have the potential to improve health. Ideas to enhance future interventions are discussed.

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Jafrā D. Thomas and Bradley J. Cardinal

Affordable Care Act Provisions; 2010 Plain Writing Act; National Health Literacy Act introduced in 2007; National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy introduced in 2010). Nonfederal organizations have also made strides in this area (e.g.,  American Association of Diabetes Educators, 2017 ; Funnell

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Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney

risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and excess gestational weight gain for the mother ( Dempsey, Butler, & Williams, 2005 ; Downs, Chasan-Taber, Evenson, Leiferman, & Yeo, 2012 ; Pivarnik & Mudd, 2009 ; Pivarnik et al., 2006 ), as well as preterm birth, operative delivery, and unhealthy

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Tricia D. McGuire-Adams and Audrey R. Giles

activity and experience higher rates of ill health than their male counterparts ( Browne, McDonald, & Elliott, 2009 ; Bruner & Chad, 2013 ; Native Women’s Association of Canada, 2007 ). Furthermore, First Nations people in Canada experience type 2 diabetes at a rate that is three to five times greater

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Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut

as type II diabetes, heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and some types of cancer for women, but it can help women achieve a healthy body composition (lean mass and fat mass) and prevent obesity ( Brown et al., 2007 ). Thus, there are clear benefits to regularly participating in intensive or

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Alan Klein

much of the time since the 1960s, the media has seized on the statistics showing Pine Ridge to be the poorest place in North America with alarming rates of just about every poverty-related index, e.g., illness (e.g., diabetes, heart disease); economic privation (unemployment, poverty index); or social

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Garrett Bunyak

example, ICAT provides links to various consumables including books such as Your Cat: Simple New Secrets to a Longer, Stronger Life . In Your Cat , Elizabeth Hodgkins ( 2008 ) suggests that “virtually all of the major lethal diseases of cats—obesity, diabetes, bladder problems… and even some forms of

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Andrew Hammond, Ruth Jeanes, Dawn Penney and Deana Leahy

could access competitive pathways, and reaffirms the need for the neoliberal-able coach to justify their legitimacy by producing athletes that can win medals. This was particularly clear when the coaches were asked what they thought about hidden disabilities (i.e., autism, diabetes, eating disorders and

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Barry Braun

The concept that participation in exercise/physical activity reduces the risk for a host of chronic diseases is undisputed. Along with adaptations to habitual activity, each bout of exercise induces beneficial changes that last for a finite period of time, requiring subsequent exercise bouts to sustain the benefits. In this respect, exercise/physical activity is similar to other “medications” and the idea of “Exercise as Medicine” is becoming embedded in the popular lexicon. Like other medications, exercise has an optimal dose and frequency of application specific to each health outcome, as well as interactions with food and other medications. Using the prevention of type-2 diabetes as an exemplar, the application of exercise/physical activity as a medication for metabolic “rehabilitation” is considered in these terms. Some recommendations that are specific to diabetes prevention emerge, showing the process by which exercise can be prescribed to achieve health goals tailored to individual disease prevention outcomes.