Hand laterality research efforts have shown a performance advantage in terms of pointing accuracy and limb speed (movement time—MVT) for the preferred hand (right-hand), and a slight reaction time (RT) performance advantage for the non-preferred hand (left-hand) for rapid manual aiming movements (Flowers, 1975; Roy, 1983; Roy & Elliott, 1986). These performance advantages for the right and left-hands, respectively, are considered an enigma in the motor behavior literature (Magill, 1993) and were investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of skill level, hand laterality, and movement direction during visuomotor processing of female athletes performing manual aiming tasks. Results showed that skill level and hand laterality did not influence the initiation of manual aiming movements; but, left direction movements were initiated faster than right direction movements. Right-hand MVT was faster than left-hand MVT; but, main effects skill level and movement direction were not significant for MVT. Skill level did interact with hand laterality and movement direction for MVT. Also, right-hand right direction movements were the easiest manual aiming tasks to complete while left-hand right direction movements were the most difficult manual aiming tasks to complete. Differences in hemispheric visuomotor processing when performing manual aiming movements based on skill level and hand laterality were discussed. Training implications for manual aiming movements were also discussed.
Jimmy Sanderson, Sarah Stokowski and Elizabeth Taylor
accounts. Such efforts can also simultaneously help educate and train student-athletes to use social media as a strategic communication tool. Accordingly, Temple’s campaign represents a promising direction in balancing the social media equation for student-athletes. To better understand the rationale for
Susan C. Brown
This study sought to identify significant predictors of success (a) in a graduate program of sport management at a major research institution in the United States and (b) in initial employment success. Regression analysis identified four significant predictors for success in the graduate program. The variables that produced a positive relationship with the dependent variable—final graduate grade point average—were age upon application, number of years of extracurricular activity involvement in undergraduate school, and undergraduate grade point average. The number of years in a full-time position in sport management upon application produced a significant negative relationship. Discriminant analysis was used to identify possible predictors of initial employment success identified as time from graduation to employment in a sport management position. However, no significant predictors were found.
Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid
direction for change that can enhance the experiences and provisions of coach education and development for women coaches. Coach Learning and Development Coaches’ learning situations have been described as formal, involving structured programs that require participants to achieve certain standards and
Jean Harvey, Maurice Lévesque and Peter Donnelly
This study focuses on the relationship between sport volunteerism and social capital, defined here as a resource that stems from participation in certain social networks. A position generator and a resources generator were used to measure the social capital of respondents. Results from this pilot study survey, exploring several aspects of volunteerism in sport in two Canadian communities (one in Québec, the other in Ontario), show a strong relationship between volunteerism in sport and social capital but do not allow a precise measure of the direction of this relationship. Results also show stronger relationships between sport volunteerism and social capital when we control for gender, language, and age.
Richard Elliott and Joseph Maguire
The global migrations of athletic workers have increased dramatically in magnitude, composition, and direction in recent years. Studies examining these migrations have, however, remained limited to specific areas and have restricted their vision to those workers employed in the athletic sector. Few studies have drawn on concepts derived from research tracing the migrations of workers in other areas: the highly skilled for example. This paper shows how an understanding of athletic labor migration could be extended by drawing on research from the area of highly skilled labor migration. The paper also proposes a potential framework for future research in this area.
Joy T. DeSensi
The Rachel Bryant Lecture Award was established in 1989 in honor of Rachel Bryant, a pioneer and architect in the field of sport for girls and women. Bryant served NAGWS as Executive Director from 1950-1971, providing strong leadership and encouraging futuristic thinking and planning. The recipient of this award is an individual who continues to carry on the spirit of this remarkable woman who gave so much to NAGWS and to the world of girls and women in sport (2010 Rachel Bryant Lecture and Awards Program, p. 2).
The lecture is published in the format in which it was delivered at the NAGWS Rachel Bryant Lecture and Awards Program at the 2010 AAHPERD National Convention in Indianapolis, IN. Written from a very personal perspective, this lecture includes a brief overview of Rachel Bryant’s legacy, the subjectively ‘lived’ sport experiences of the author, concerns regarding the future of girls and women in sport, and the direction NAGWS is taking as an organization.
David Rowe, Jim McKay and Geoffrey Lawrence
The sociology of sport in Australia has reached a key point in its development A critical tradition in the subdiscipline has been established over the last decade, but its intellectual and institutional progress has been uneven. This article briefly traces the emergence of critical sports sociology in a country outside the major centers in the UK and U.S., its break with functionalist approaches, and its attempts to overcome the neglect of local mainstream sociology. The authors proceed to examine (self-reflexively) the changes of theoretical direction and the new lines of research that are being explored in the field. A recent “skirmish” with narrative history over the preferred theories and methods in sports analysis is discussed as illustrative of the difficulties encountered by an energetic but small, dispersed and underorganized scholarly movement in Australia.
Susan S. Levy
Using a qualitative design, the purpose of this study was to investigate the personal meaning of competition to the female mountain bike racer. Interviews were conducted with nine female mountain bike racers of varying levels of experience, and were designed to elicit information relevant to the athlete’s understanding of her experience of competition, as well as, the personal meaning she attached to that experience. The codification of participant responses resulted in the identification of eight main themes including self-fulfillment, perceived competence, social support and camaraderie, health and fitness, joy of the experience, focus and self-control, external benefits derived from racing, and goal-direction. The findings of the study were, in general, supportive of the components of meaning posited by Personal Investment Theory (Maehr & Braskamp, 1986). Practical implications from this study include developing strategies for increasing the meaningfulness of the competitive experience for females in order to promote participation in physical activity.
Wilbert M. Leonard II and John Phillips
“Stacking” is one of the oldest and most thoroughly studied phenomena in the sociology of sport. Because of this tradition, the literature is replete with tabular demonstrations of the stacking phenomenon. Many of these data arrangements violate an important convention in table presentation: Percents should be computed in the direction of the causal factor. This procedure allows one to contrast the distribution of the dependent variable between/among categories of the independent variable and enables determining what differences, if any, exist between/among categories of the independent variable. The consequences of this violation for stacking studies is that, technically, position appears to affect race whereas, logically, race affects position played. Because so many competent researchers have published tables that run the “wrong way,” it is appropriate to examine the rationale behind the cause and effect rule for percentaging tables and instances in which this “rule” may be broken.