the types and tones of thoughts and opinions generated around the athletes may differ depending on the gender of the athlete, with commenters on male body-image athletes more likely to use profanity than on women body-image athletes. A gender disparity was also identified in terms of ESPN’s Instagram
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson and Carol C. Irwin
This case study illustrates the complexity of decision making in public organizations, specifically highlighting the public health concern of drowning disparities in the United States. Using escalation of commitment theory, students must consider various factors in evaluating the overextended commitments of a local government in a complicated sociopolitical environment and with vital public needs that must be addressed through a local parks and recreation department. Facing a reduction in allocated resources, the department director, Claire Meeks, is tasked with determining which programs will receive higher priority despite the varied feedback from the management staff. To ensure students are provided a realistic scenario, this case offers a combination of fictional and real-life events from Splash Mid-South, an innovative swimming program in Memphis, Tennessee. Students must critically evaluate not only the merits of the swimming program, but the other sport, recreation, and parks programs that also merit an equitable share of the limited resources. Therefore, students are placed in a decision-making role that is common to managers of both public and private organizations. This case study is appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate sport management courses, with specific application to strategic management, organizational behavior, and recreation or leisure topics.
Daniel Wigfield, Ryan Snelgrove, Luke R. Potwarka, Katie Misener and Laura Wood
to improve the camp enrolment disparity across all regions and maximize its revenue potential, PGC Basketball spent $300,000 on marketing efforts. Specific details regarding marketing efforts and camp programming details can be found in a later section of this profile. Table 1 PGC Basketball 2017
Jörg Vianden and Elizabeth A. Gregg
During the first two decades of the 21st century, growing social inequalities and persistent power disparities between people from different classes, races, sexual orientations, genders, and ability statuses have marked life in the United States. Atop the social ladder sit elite heterosexual white
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Gareth J. Jones, Kristy McCray and Robin Hardin
rate disparities . Personnel Psychology, 56, 607 – 631 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x Jones , D.F. , Brooks , D.D. , & Mak , J.Y. ( 2008 ). Examining sport management programs in the United States . Sport Management Review, 11, 77 – 91 . doi
Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca
experience in the undergraduate sport management program. Although prior work has accurately demonstrated demographic disparities in the classroom ( Jones et al., 2008 ; Moore et al., 2004 ; Schwab et al., 2013 ), a rich portrayal of the lived experiences of female students in sport management programs is
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Molly Hayes Sauder and Cheryl R. Rode
-related sexual harassment in the United States: Using meta-analysis to explain reported rate disparities . Personnel Psychology, 56, 607 – 631 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00752.x Jones , D.F. , Brooks , D.D. , & Mak , J.Y. ( 2008 ). Examining sport management
Dustin A. Hahn
female athletes even if evidence of disparity in type of treatment persists in social media. Race Equally important, though studied with perhaps less fervor, is the issue of racial representation in sport media today. Findings during the 2012 Olympics revealed an emphasis on White athletes over
Sally Shaw and John Amis
Studies that have examined the disparity in investment between men's and women's sports are rare and are generally distributional in nature. Little research has been carried out that has explored the reasons why managers tend to invest in men's sport instead of women's. Given the rise in sponsorship spending, and the increasingly strategic nature of such investments, this represents an important gap in the literature. The purpose of this paper was to explore conceptually and empirically some of the possible reasons for this disparity. By examining the agreements made by the sponsors of two international women's sports teams, we found support for the contention that the values and beliefs of decision makers, the media representation of sport, and mimetic pressures on managers combine to heavily influence decisions about what and who to sponsor. We also suggest that if such factors can be overcome, women's sport has the potential to be a very useful marketing tool for certain firms.
Gregory A. Cranmer, Alexander L. Lancaster and Tina M. Harris
The disparity in framing in sport media based on athlete race has historically garnered extensive attention. In the past, the media promoted historical stereotypes of Black athletes that emphasized their physical prowess and diminished their intellectual capacity. However, recent research provides evidence that these traditional frames are changing and that recent media coverage is more racially equitable or even contradicts old patterns. Advancing this critique further, the current study examined novel visual frames (i.e., the emphasis of athleticism, sporting context, and sexualization) of White and Black athletes in ESPN’s The Body Issue. The findings contradict historical patterns of representations of Black athletes through the identification of a shift in the framing patterns for Black male athletes, whereas Black female athletes still face frames that portray them in a stereotypical manner. This study recognizes these tensions while successfully illustrating the importance of examining the intersections of difference for revealing and confronting the unique portrayals of Black female athletes.