al., 2009 ) and lower academic achievement ( Carlson et al., 2008 ; Kwak et al., 2009 ) than regularly active children. Research has consistently documented age disparities in youth physical activity, with children’s participation in MVPA decreasing by 38 minutes per year from age 9 to age 15 ( Nader
Hannah G. Calvert, Matthew T. Mahar, Brian Flay and Lindsey Turner
interaction terms to test a priori hypothesized disparities. Given literature showing that males accrue more steps than females across the school day, 18 we hypothesized that males would accrue more steps than females during all PA opportunities (PE, recess, and CBPA). Similarly, given that PA levels are
Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham
the types and tones of thoughts and opinions generated around the athletes may differ depending on the gender of the athlete, with commenters on male body-image athletes more likely to use profanity than on women body-image athletes. A gender disparity was also identified in terms of ESPN’s Instagram
Samantha M. Ross, Ellen Smit, Joonkoo Yun, Kathleen Bogart, Bridget Hatfield and Samuel W. Logan
school-aged children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise, sport, or PA daily. 4 Children with disabilities are a recognized priority group, 5 reporting some of the lowest PA levels among US school-aged children. 6 – 9 However, estimating the magnitude of PA disparities
Gopal K. Singh, Michael D. Kogan, Mohammad Siahpush and Peter C. van Dyck
This study examines state and regional disparities in vigorous physical activity levels among US children age 6 to 17 years.
The 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health was used to calculate vigorous physical activity (VPA) and no days of vigorous physical activity (NVPA) prevalence by state and geographic region. Logistic and least squares regression were used to analyze geographic disparities.
Vigorous physical activity levels varied substantially across geographic areas, with the East Southcentral region of the US having the highest NVPA prevalence (13.4%) and the Pacific region the lowest prevalence (9.1%). Children in Georgia and Tennessee had 2.2 to 2.3 times higher odds and children in DC, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Indiana, Kentucky, Kansas, New Jersey, South Carolina, and Washington (adjusted prevalence >13.4%) had 1.8 to 2.0 times higher odds of NVPA than children in California (adjusted prevalence = 8.4%). Adjustment for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, social capital, television viewing, sleep behavior, and parental physical activity doubled the magnitude of geographic disparities in vigorous physical activity levels. Area poverty, income inequality, and violent crime rates were independent predictors of VPA and NVPA.
Although individual and area-level socioeconomic factors are important predictors, substantial geographic disparities remain, with children in several Southern states having particularly high risks of NVPA.
Wendell C. Taylor, Myron F. Floyd, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover and Joseph Brooks
Despite the importance of physical activity (PA) for good health, not all populations have equal access to PA facilities and resources. This disparity is an environmental justice (EJ) issue because of the negative impact on the health of low-income and racial/ethnic minorities.
This paper reviews the first wave of the EJ movement, presents the second wave of the EJ movement, discusses the implications of adopting principles from the EJ movement to focus on research in parks and recreation services (PRS), and recommends future research directions.
Studies on EJ have documented the disproportionate burden of environmental challenges experienced by low-income and racial/ethnic minorities. With regard to PA, these communities face inadequate access to, quality of, financing for, and public involvement in recreation opportunities.
EJ is a useful framework to facilitate collaborative research between public health and PRS to study racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities in PA.
Philip Noyes, Lawrence Fung, Karen K. Lee, Victoria E. Grimshaw, Adam Karpati and Laura DiGrande
Regular physical activity such as biking can help prevent obesity and chronic disease. Improvements in cycling infrastructure are associated with higher overall cycling rates, but less is known about bike lane utilization in low-income urban neighborhoods.
During the summer of 2009, 4 Central Brooklyn streets with bicycle lanes were studied using camcorders to record for a total of 40 hours. Video recordings were coded for behaviors and characteristics of cyclists and motorists. An intercept survey (N = 324, 42% participation rate) captured information on cyclist demographics, behaviors, and attitudes.
1282 cyclists were observed on study streets. Cyclists were primarily male (80.0%) and non-White (54.5%). 9.9% of motorists drove in the bike lane and parked vehicles blocked the bike lane for 9.6% of the observational period. Of cyclists surveyed, 69.4% lived locally, 61.3% were normal weight or underweight, and 64.8% met recommended levels of physical activity by cycling 30+ minutes/day on 5+ days of the past week.
Bicycle lanes were used by local residents of a low-income urban neighborhood. Compared with neighborhood residents overall, cyclists reported better health and health behaviors. Enhancing infrastructure that supports active transportation may be effective in reducing health inequities in low-income urban communities.
Toben F. Nelson, Richard F. MacLehose, Cynthia Davey, Peter Rode and Marilyn S. Nanney
health behavior targets is to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities [eg, by gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position (SEP), place of residence], and improve the health of all groups. Significant disparities in PA among youth exist. 17 , 18 For example, boys are more likely than girls to be
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
beneficial to all adults, there are notable disparities in the adherence to these recommendations. Black women are among the most physically inactive demographic groups in the United States, and it is reported that only 36% participate in the recommended 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity
Scherezade K. Mama, Lorna H. McNeill, Erica G. Soltero, Raul Orlando Edwards and Rebecca E. Lee
, Greever, Nwaokelemeh, Mendoza, & Barr-Anderson, 2014 ; Brown & Trost, 2003 ; Vrazel, Saunders, & Wilcox, 2008 ). Therefore, innovative strategies to increase physical activity are needed to reduce health disparities and mortality among women of color. Most behaviorally focused theoretical frameworks