Association (NCAA), over 45% of student-athletes identified as a race/ethnicity other than White ( NCAA, 2018 ). However, the importance of diversity has traditionally been ignored in sport and exercise psychology (SEP), both in research and in practice. Only 10.5% of abstracts submitted to the AASP annual
Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg
Kyle A. Rich and Audrey R. Giles
This article examines the piloting of a cultural safety training module in the Canadian Red Cross’s (CRC’s) Water Safety Instructor Development Program. Thematic analysis of interviews with program participants and facilitators revealed two main themes: Inclusion is important and valued by instructors, and accommodation for cultural and ethnic diversity is difficult to achieve in aquatics settings. Doherty and Chelladurai’s (1999) framework was used to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the pilot module. In conclusion, the authors propose that cultural safety training for the instructors alone will not lead to the provision of culturally safe sport; rather, there needs to be a change in the overall organizational culture in which the CRC’s programs are offered if they are to succeed. These findings make three contributions to the literature. First, the authors bridge the existing bodies of literature on critical Whiteness theory and sport management literature that addresses the management of diversity. Second, the authors explore the novel application of cultural safety training for instructors of a sport program. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to enable the development of an organizational culture that is facilitative and supportive with respect to inclusion (i.e., is welcoming) and accommodation (i.e., is flexible and adaptable) of cultural and ethnic diversity in aquatics programming.
Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon
Diversity in organizations has distinct positive implications. Organizations with more female representation are more successful than those headed solely by men ( Adler, 2001 ; Catalyst, 2013 ; Desvaux, Devillard-Hoellinger, & Baumgarten, 2007 ; Wittenberg-Cox, 2010 ; Wittenberg-Cox, 2014 ). A
George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence, antecedents, and outcomes of diversity training in intercollegiate athletics. Data were collected from senior level administrators and aggregated to the department level for NCAA Division I (n = 239), Division II (n = 205), and Division III (n = 231) athletic departments. Only 53% of the athletic departments offered training. Logistic regression indicated that gender diversity, sexual orientation diversity, divisional affiliation, and the presence of a proactive diversity culture were all predictive of whether the department offered training. Additional analysis indicated that sensitivity to individual needs and understanding different cultures were the topics most covered in the training. Finally, the motivation for training (either compliance- or effectiveness-based) and the degree to which the training was systematically integrated were predictive of transfer of training, with the latter variable holding the strongest association. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.
Alison J. Doherty and Packianathan Chelladurai
The article focuses on the management and impact of cultural diversity in sport organizations. It is proposed that the potentially constructive or destructive impact of cultural diversity is a function of the management of that diversity, which is ultimately a reflection of organizational culture, or “how things are done around here.” Organizational culture is described along a continuum of valuing similarity and diversity in the organization. It is argued that the benefits of cultural diversity (e.g., creativity, challenge, constructive conflict) will be realized when an organizational culture of diversity underlies the management of that diversity. These benefits are heightened when the situation dictates a high degree of task interdependence and complexity. Implications for increasing cultural diversity and developing an organizational culture that values that diversity, as a social responsibility and a contributing force to organizational performance, are discussed.
Dana D. Brooks, Louis Harrison Jr., Michael Norris and Dawn Norwood
The primary purpose of this article is to engage in a dialogue regarding why faculty, students, and administrators should care about diversity and inclusion in kinesiology. Recent American population growth trends data clearly reveals an increase in ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanics. American public schools and colleges are experiencing greater ethnic diversity, leading to increased diversity within our classrooms. A review of the literature quickly reveals a lack of clarity in defining the terms diversity and inclusion. Throughout the article we define these terms and at the same time identify barriers (on and off campus) to promoting and ensuring a diverse learning environment. Strong arguments are presented supporting the value of diversity within the academy, especially in kinesiology. The value of diversity in kinesiology is refected in scholarly publications, conference programming, awards recognition activities, and in the recruitment and retention of a diverse faculty and student population.
NiCole R. Keith and Jared A. Russell
This article describes the characteristics of diversity within academia and professional organizations in general and specifically within Kinesiology departments and Kinesiology-related organizations. While other types of diversity exist, this article refers to diversity in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, age, physical capability, socioeconomic background, and/or sexual orientation. Two Kinesiology departments, within the context of their universities, in two different regions of the United States are presented as models of best practice to improve institutional diversity. Also presented are one detailed example and several general examples of methods by which Kinesiology-related professional organizations have developed intentional strategies to improve diversity in membership and leadership. Presented models could, at least in part, be used by administrators and leaders to improve diversity within academic institutions and professional organizations.
George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity-related change process a university athletic department was undertaking. A comprehensive model was developed by drawing from full integration theory and institutional theory. Following an organizational diagnosis perspective, data were collected through semistructured interviews, internal documents from the athletic department and university culture centers, associated websites, and press releases. Results indicate that political, functional, and social pressures for change influenced the implementation of various diversity initiatives. Despite these efforts, two primary groups of factors served to impede the progress: organizational factors, in the form of top management support and systemic integration, and perceptual processes, in the form of social processes and utility. Results suggest that for diversity-related change to be successful, it is important to consider how diversity impacts the entire sport organization, internal and external stakeholders’ perceptions, and the meaningful influence of organizational factors.
Rosalind Chonise Gregory-Bass, Richard H. Williams, Bridget A. Peters and Asherah N. Blount
Diversity and inclusion in Kinesiology is needed to ensure the future professionals of tomorrow engage in recognizing the shared fabric of science and inquiry. Initiatives targeting inclusion and diversity have shown promise in bridging the existing gap. Vital to this process is the role of faculty, administrators and students in providing academic support and paracurricular exposure to the field of Kinesiology. Historical perspectives and knowledge of best practices shape the conversation regarding innovative 21st century options deemed necessary for meeting this challenge. Our review describes programs that strengthen the preparedness of undergraduate students. In addition, we outline existing strategies leading to effective partnerships between undergraduate and graduate institutions. Diversity and inclusion are integral to the achievement of excellence and enhance each institution's ability to accomplish its academic mission and to serve its constituents.
Moe Kato, Hama Watanabe and Gentaro Taga
To investigate the developmental emergence of the ability to change their behavior depending on environmental conditions, we studied spontaneous limb movements and subsequent changes in amount and pattern of movement while playing with a mobile toy in infants 90-129 days old. We calculated two independent indices to represent amount and pattern of movements. While younger infants only increased the amount of movement, older infants first changed their movement pattern toward the arm-dominant pattern and then increased the amount of movement. Although the diversity of spontaneous movements did not differ with age, only the older infants showed the two-stage process. These results suggest that there is a drastic transition in the changeability of spontaneous movements toward movements suitable for the specific environmental condition.