Association (NCAA), over 45% of student-athletes identified as a race/ethnicity other than White ( NCAA, 2018 ). However, the importance of diversity has traditionally been ignored in sport and exercise psychology (SEP), both in research and in practice. Only 10.5% of abstracts submitted to the AASP annual
Zachary McCarver, Shelby Anderson, Justine Vosloo and Sebastian Harenberg
Anthony P. Kontos and Alfiee M. Breland-Noble
This article examines from a theoretical perspective the most pertinent issues related to providing sport psychology consulting to athletes of color. A review of multicultural concepts including identity, acculturation/enculturation, generalizations, and stereotyping is presented. These concepts provide a framework within which to address issues and examples pertinent to African American, Latino, Asian American, and American Indian athletes. A multicultural sport psychology approach incorporating worldview and integrative theory is examined. Finally, future issues in multicultural sport psychology including changes in the population, female athletes of color, and the need for sport psychologists of color are discussed.
Stephanie J. Hanrahan
A group of students from the Aboriginal Centre for the Performing Arts participated in a mental skills training program that focused on goal setting, self-confidence development, and team building. There were 13 two-hour sessions held over a 20-week period. The participants, cultural issues, and the basic structure of the program are described. The author’s observations regarding competition, displays of affection, collective values, and the importance of family and nature are provided. The participants qualitatively evaluated the program. Conclusions related to group process, program structure, and diversity are presented. These conclusions should be of value in terms of shaping future group mental skills training programs.
Kevin S. Masters and Benjamin M. Ogles
Association and dissociation (A/D) have been identified as important cognitive strategies in the literature on running and exercise. This paper is a comprehensive review of the 20 years of research in the area. Specific topics addressed include historical context, definition and terminology considerations, measurement and design issues, and findings as they pertain to performance, injury, and pain. Several research recommendations are made including change from using the term dissociation, use of multiple measurement methods, diversity of research designs, and study of topics, such as injury, exercise adherence, and emotionality, as they relate to A/D. Finally, practical findings indicate that association relates to faster performance, dissociation relates to lower perceived exertion and possibly greater endurance, and dissociation is not related to injury but association may be.
Diane L. Gill
Feminist sport psychology encompasses many approaches and has many variations. The articles in this special issue reflect that variation but also reflect common themes outlined in this introductory article. The feminist framework for this article begins with bell hooks’ (2000) inclusive, action-oriented definition of feminism as “a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (p. viii). The following themes, drawn from feminist theory and sport studies scholarship, provide the supporting structure: (a) gender is relational rather than categorical; (b) gender is inextricably linked with race/ethnicity, class, and other social identities; (c) gender and cultural relations involve power and privilege; and (d) feminism demands action. Gender scholarship in sport psychology is reviewed noting recent moves toward feminist approaches and promising directions that incorporate cultural diversity and relational analyses to move toward feminist practice. The other articles in this issue reflect similar feminist themes and present unique contributions to guide us toward feminist sport psychology.
Urban Johnson and Mark Andersen
contribute toward understanding cultural-diversity issues in sport and that the practice of self-reflection is central to the development of applied sport psychologists. In a follow-up article to the Wylleman et al. ( 2009 ) study, Wylleman and Seiler ( 2016 ) listed challenges that they believed needed to
Alessandro Quartiroli, Sharon M. Knight, Edward F. Etzel and Rebecca A. Zakrajsek
. Although the nature of SPPs’ work is similar to that of other psychology professionals, the context of sport psychology practice differed from that of other professionals in terms of clientele characteristics, work settings, necessity for extensive travel, and diversity of professional roles, as well as
Elizabeth M. Mullin, James E. Leone and Suzanne Pottratz
. Ongoing support from professional organizations is needed to include sexual-orientation-themed diversity and inclusion presentations in coursework, conference presentations, and symposia. SPCs need to feel prepared to address an athlete’s coming out in both inclusive and homonegative environments. If they
Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer
pertinent to all practitioners have been established as important for effective team-based work. To date, evidence from team-based practice across a variety of disciplines supports the importance of effective communication styles ( Körner, 2010 ), diversity and cultural training ( Bell, Brown, Colaneri
Tammy Sheehy, Sam Zizzi, Kristen Dieffenbach and Lee-Ann Sharp
, and the sample was predominantly White (75%) and middle-aged men (80%). This lack of diversity in the sample limits the discussion of women’s experiences and international differences in the experiences of sport psychology services for high-performance coaches. Practical Implications and Future