Recreational sport diving is becoming an increasingly popular sport for women. Women now comprise approximately 25% of the diving community according to Divers Alert Network statistics. In the diving literature it has been stated that women are at a greater risk for decompression sickness than men. Most of these statements were derived from high-altitude (hypobaric environment) studies rather than from a scuba diving (hyperbaric) environment. Data from the naval diving and salvage training center were analyzed, and it was found that women are not more susceptible to decompression sickness than men during dives between 4 and 10 atmospheres. More specific studies on sport diving should be completed on factors contributing to underwater decompression sickness in both men and women.
Jacalyn J. Robert
Karen H. Weiller, Catriona T. Higgs and Scott B. Martin
Sports are omnipresent in American society; available for viewing 24 hours a day and can constitute much of everyday life and conversation. Researchers have indicated that men and women relate to sport differently (Gantz & Wenner, 1991). Evidence shows males outnumber females in sport viewership, and in the past much of the sport programming to which we are exposed caters specifically to men. The purpose of the present study was to explore issues related to audience perception of the 1996 Olympic Games. Participants (125 males and 92 females) ranging from 18 to 40 years of age were administered a gender specific version of the Audience Perception Questionnaires (APQ) following viewing video segments of men’s and women’s competitions (i.e., basketball, gymnastics, swimming and diving, and volleyball). The two versions of the APQ were developed from current literature, and by employing a delphi technique to validate the APQ. Factor analyses resulted in four underlying media perception dimensions: Commentary Coverage, Gender Marking and Stereotyping, Hierarchy of Naming, and Verbal Descriptors. Results revealed perceptions of male and female athletes by the public are influenced to a great degree by gender.
Bryan E. Denham
Drawing on data gathered from high-school seniors in the 2008 Monitoring the Future Study of American Youth (N = 2,063), this research examined the explanatory effects of competitive sports participation on alcohol consumption and marijuana use using race and noncompetitive exercise frequency as controls. Among males, competitive sports included baseball, basketball, football, soccer, track and field, and weightlifting, and among females, sports included softball, basketball, soccer, swimming and diving, track and field, and volleyball. White males reported greater alcohol consumption than Black and Hispanic respondents, with competitors in baseball, football and weightlifting consuming alcohol more frequently. The use of marijuana did not depend on race, but baseball players and weightlifters reported significantly more use. Among females, race differences did not emerge in ordinal regression models testing effects on alcohol consumption, but participants in every sport reported drinking alcohol more frequently. White female athletes also appeared to smoke marijuana more frequently. Overall, results suggested comparably strong effects for female sport environments while male behaviors varied by race, noncompetitive exercise frequency, and sports competition. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are offered.
J. Vincent, Charles Imwold, J. T. Johnson and Dwayne Massey
This study was a comparison of how selected newspapers from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States reported on female athletes competing in four “gender-appropriate” sports with female athletes competing in four “gender-inappropriate” sports at the Centennial Olympic Games. The liberal feminist theoretical framework underpinning this study views equality of opportunity and individual liberty as an inevitable by-product of political, legal, and educational reform juxtaposed with a gradual social acceptance. Content Analysis was used to examine all the articles and photographs from the front pages and the sports sections of the newspapers. Based upon the data, female athletes competing in the “gender-appropriate” sports of swimming, gymnastics, tennis, and diving received more newspaper coverage than female athletes competing in the “gender-inappropriate” sports of soccer, softball, field hockey, and volleyball in terms of the average number of words per article and the average number of paragraphs per article. In addition, the “gender-appropriate” athletes were over-represented in the average number of photographs, the average number of photographs on the first page, and the average number of photographs on the top of the pages. Qualitative analyses of articles and photographs revealed a subtle but discernable amount of culturally stereotyped coverage.
the Sociology of Sport, 25 ( 3 ), 203 – 220 . doi:10.1177/101269029002500303 10.1177/101269029002500303 Morris , P.H. , & Lewis , D. ( 2003 ). “Tackling diving: the perception of deceptive intentions in association football (soccer) . Journal of Nonverbal Behaviour, 34 ( 1 ), 1 – 13 . doi
explicitly emphasize athletes’ physical and emotional vulnerability. No Limits (dir. Allison Ellwood), for instance, focuses on the death of French free-diver Audrey Mestre and presents her as a victim of her older, domineering husband Pipin Ferreras’ selfish ambition. After his world-record deep dive is
Jenny McMahon, Camilla J. Knight and Kerry R. McGannon
sports such as diving, football, gymnastics, hockey, netball and track and field athletics. In a different study which focused on the sport of swimming, Stirling and Kerr ( 2007 ) found emotional abuse to most often occur in the coach-athlete relationship ( Kerr & Stirling, 2012 ). Emotional abuse was
Sarah J. Hatteberg
.g., Basketball, Volleyball* e.g., Swimming, Diving, Cross Country, Track *Most big time collegiate athletic programs have only two revenue-generating sports for men and women. To maintain confidentiality, teams are identified according to sport type only. Despite being selected for inclusion in the study, institutional
). But what about the so-called judged sports such as artistic or rhythmic gymnastics, diving, or figure skating? Best was aware of such sports and continued to illustrate the differences between sport and art by classifying sports into purposive and aesthetics sports based on their different functions
dive” after the Coors Classic ended. 36 What is missing from these comments is an examination of the gender relations inherent in the ideological and structural underpinnings of race formats and cycling governance– then and now, that contribute to the shifting status of women’s cycling. A few cycling