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Daniel Arvidsson, Elias Johannesson, Lars Bo Andersen, Magnus Karlsson, Per Wollmer, Ola Thorsson and Magnus Dencker

fat (in kilograms) was determined from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-L version 1.3z; Lunar, Madison, WI). 25 Body fat percentage (%) was calculated as the quotient of body fat and total body mass, and used in the statistical analyses. Statistics Structural equation modeling, with observed

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Darren G. Candow, Philip D. Chilibeck, Karen E. Chad, Murray J. Chrusch, K. Shawn Davison and Darren G. Burke

The authors previously found that creatine (Cr) combined with 12 weeks of resistance training enhanced muscle strength and endurance and lean tissue mass (LTM) in older men. Their purpose in this study was to assess these variables with cessation of Cr combined with 12 weeks of reduced training (33% lower volume) in a subgroup of these men (n = 8, 73 years old) compared with 5 men (69 years old) who did not receive Cr. Strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), endurance (maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets at 70–80% 1-RM), and LTM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of Cr cessation combined with reduced-volume training. No changes in strength or LTM occurred. Muscle endurance was significantly reduced (7–21%; p < .05), with the rate of change similar between groups. Withdrawal from Cr had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with 12 weeks of reduced-volume training.

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle, Bruna R. Gouveia, Matthias Kliegel, Adilson Marques and Duarte L. Freitas

. Body Skeletal Muscle Total body lean soft tissue mass and appendicular lean soft tissue (ALST; considered equivalent to the sum of lean soft tissue in both the right and left arms and legs; Kim, Heymsfield, Baumgartner, & Gallagher, 2002 ) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and measurement of resistance, reactance, and PhA by spectral bioelectrical impedance were performed. The posttraining measurements were performed at least 72 hr after the final RT session to avoid the acute effects of the last RT session. The other 12

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

X-ray absorptiometry (DPX-MD model; Lunar, Chalfont, United Kingdom) was used to assess BMD (g/cm 2 ) and bone mineral content (BMC; g). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures were performed in the morning after a light breakfast, and the scanner quality was tested by a trained researcher before

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

mass in various body compartments by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a good index of metabolic and CVD consequences of obesity. 22 However, anthropometric indices also have clinical relevance, compared with general obesity measures alone, in screening for CVD in women, 23 including

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

using the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test-2. Participants were excluded from analysis for incomplete body composition data (n = 2, incomplete dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan) and activity data (n = 6, improper/insufficient wear). An additional 6 participants were excluded as outliers as they were

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

was made after baseline measurements were completed. All participants were given a year’s supply of a multivitamin supplement containing 10 μg of vitamin D. Laboratory Measurements BMD and Anthropometrics Bone density was measured using a different dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine for each

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Christie L. Ward, Rudy J. Valentine and Ellen M. Evans

Adiposity, lean mass, and physical activity (PA) are known to influence physical function in older adults, although the independent influences are not completely characterized. Older adults (N = 156, M age = 68.9 ± 6.7 yr, 85 men) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, PA by accelerometer, and physical function via timed up-and-go (UP&GO), 30-s chair stand, 6-min walk (6-min WALK), and Star-Excursion Balance Test. In the absence of percentage-body-fat by PA interactions (p > .05), main effects existed such that a higher percentage body fat was associated with poorer performance in UP&GO, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min WALK (p < .05). No significant main effects were found for PA and functional performance. Adiposity explains 4.6–11.4% in physical functional variance (p < .05). Preventing increases in adiposity with age may help older adults maintain functional independence.

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Jeanne F. Nichols, Karen P. Nelson, Katrina K. Peterson and David J. Sartoris

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of high-intensity strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) of 34 non-estrogen-repleted, active women over 60 years of age. The study was designed as a randomized, nonblinded trial in which subjects were stratified into rank-ordered pairs by level of physical activity, then randomly assigned into either a weight training (WT) or a control (CON) group. BMD of the spine (L2–L4), hip, and total body was assessed at 0, 6, and 12 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Group-by-time repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of weight training on BMD, despite marked gains in muscular strength for all exercises. The high-intensity weight training utilized in this study did not induce positive changes in BMD of the hip and spine of previously active, non-estrogen-repleted older women. However, the protocol was safe, enjoyable, and highly effective in increasing muscular strength.