Focusing on female triathletes, this study was an exploration of behaviors and attitudes that may lead to disordered eating among female triathletes. One hundred and eighty-eight female triathletes residing in the U.S. completed an Internet-based questionnaire comprised of measures for disordered eating, body size distortion and dissatisfaction, and food consumption. Statistically significant relationships were identified regarding Preoccupation with Weight and Food Consumption (r= 0.52, p=0.005), Oral Control and Food Consumption (r= 0.32, p=0.04), and Food Restriction and Food Consumption (r= −0.30, p=0.04). Body Size Distortion was also significantly correlated to Food Consumption (r= −0.19, p=0.01), especially among the Sprint distance competitors (r= −0.21, p=0.02). Based upon the findings we suggest food restriction, body size distortion, and disordered eating attitudes are apparent among female triathletes, especially those who are club level athletes and short distance competitors.
Holly Wethington, Claudia Flowers, Michael Turner and Rita DiGioacchino DeBate
Kayla W. Carrigan, Trent A. Petrie and Carlin M. Anderson
Female athletes have been identified as a subpopulation at heightened risk for disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, particularly due to weight pressures in their environment. Using a sample of 414 NCAA Division-I female collegiate athletes, we examined the relations of required team weigh-ins or self-weighing on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Through a series of multivariate analyses, we determined that team weighs were significantly unrelated to all outcome measures. Self-weighing, however, differentiated the athletes’ scores on internalization, body satisfaction, dietary restraint, negative affect, and bulimic symptomatology; athletes who self-weighed three or more times a week reported significantly higher levels of pathology across all measures. Mandatory team-conducted weigh-ins appear to not be a salient pressure for female gymnasts and swimmer/divers, although the frequency of their self-weighing may represent a level of self-monitoring that is associated with greater endorsement of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.
Patricia Marten DiBartolo and Carey Shaffer
This study examines eating attitudes, body satisfaction, reasons for exercise, and general psychological well-being in female nonathletes and Division III college athletes. A total of 115 nonathletes and 94 athletes completed measures of eating attitudes, body satisfaction, trait affect, reasons for exercise, and perceived self-competence. On the majority of measures, the scores of athletes revealed less eating disorder symptomatology and more healthy psychological functioning than the scores of nonathletes. These results indicate that female athletic involvement can be associated with healthy eating and psychological functioning. Future research should give consideration to which environments may foster healthy sports participation.
Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill
College cheerleaders (73 females and 51 males) participated in the current study on eating disorders and weight-related concerns within cheerleading. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and CHEER, a measure of weight-related stressors within cheerleading. Significant gender differences were identified through a one-way MANOVA with these measures. As expected, female cheerleaders reported more weight-related concerns and had higher scores on SPAS, EDI Drive for Thinness and Body Dissatisfaction than did male cheerleaders. Both males and females reported weight-related concerns, although the actual stressors were different. Based upon these data, we suggest that males, as well as females, face unique pressures in cheerleading related to body weight.
Patti L. Williams, Roger G. Sargent, Robert F. Valois, J. Wanzer Drane, Deborah M. Parra-Medina and Larry J. Durstine
This study is an examination of eating behaviors and body image concerns among 587 female collegiate athletes from nine colleges/universities representing 14 different sports. Measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), and a questionnaire gathering general demographic information, reasons for dieting and/or using other methods of weight control, as well as information about expressed concerns from others regarding the respondents weight. Three sport groups were hypothesized to be at increased risk: athletes whose performance is subjectively scored; athletes who compete in a sport where a low body weight is considered advantageous; and athletes who must wear body conrevealing clothing. Chi-Square and Logistic Regression analyses revealed no association between these sport groups and the presence of a subclinical eating disorder (SED). Additional analyses determined no statistical association between student-athletes competing at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level (versus Division II or III level) or student-athletes who were scholarship recipients (versus non-scholarship recipients) and the presence of SED. Student-athletes who have heard expressed concerns from others regarding their body weight were significantly more likely to report the presence of SED (p < .0001). Therefore, special care should be taken with all student-athletes when discussing body weight.
Marina Galante, Rose Marie Ward and Robert Weinberg
Weight-conscious drinking is the use of disordered eating behaviors in anticipation of or as compensation for calories consumed during alcohol use. The aim of the current study is to assess the relationship between weight-conscious drinking, athletic status, and sport type. Participants were 295 college students (82 male and 213 female; Mage = 20.10) from a midsized Midwestern university. Participants completed an online survey that included items assessing alcohol consumption, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS). In comparison with nonathletes, student-athletes had lower EAT-26 and CEBRACS scores; RAPI scores did not differ between the two groups. Lean-sport athletes differed concerning CEBRACS diet/exercise subscales in comparison with nonlean-sport athletes.
Justine Chatterton, Trent A. Petrie, Keke L. Schuler and Camilo Ruggero
A Test of an Etiological Model: Disordered Eating in Male Collegiate Athletes Male athletes are at risk for developing eating disorders (ED) as well as disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, such as bulimic symptomatology, due to general sociocultural ideals about body and appearance, and sport
rhetoric of participation and inclusivity. Teammate influences on the eating attitudes and behaviors of female athletes Scott, C. L., Haycraft, E., and Plateau, C. R. School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, UK Prevalence rates for disordered eating and compulsive exercise
Tanya McGuane, Stephen Shannon, Lee-Ann Sharp, Martin Dempster and Gavin Breslin
.I. , Terry , P.C. , & Chatzisarantis , N.L.D. ( 2003 ). Weight loss, mood responses, eating attitudes and behavior regulation among professional jockeys . Journal of Sports Sciences, 21 , 265 – 266 . Chatterton , J.M. , & Petrie , T.A. ( 2013 ). Prevalence of disordered eating and pathogenic
Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam
. , & Brophy , R. ( 2016 ). Are elite female soccer athletes at risk for disordered eating attitudes, menstrual dysfunction, and stress fractures? PM&R: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 8 ( 3 ), 208 – 213 . doi:10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.07.003 10.1016/j.pmrj.2015.07.003 Ransdell , L.B. , & Murray , T