We undertook a dietary survey of 167 Australian Olympic team athletes (80 females and 87 males) competing in endurance sports (n = 41), team sports (n = 31), sprint- or skill-based sports (n = 67), and sports in which athletes are weight-conscious (n = 28). Analysis of their 7-day food diaries provided mean energy intakes, nutrient intakes, and eating patterns. Higher energy intakes relative to body mass were reported by male athletes compared with females, and by endurance athletes compared with other athletes. Endurance athletes reported substantially higher intakes of carbohydrate (CHO) than other athletes, and were among the athletes most likely to consume CHO during and after training sessions. Athletes undertaking weight-conscious sports reported relatively low energy intakes and were least likely to consume CHO during a training session or in the first hour of recovery. On average, athletes reported eating on ~5 separate occasions each day, with a moderate relationship between the number of daily eating occasions and total energy intake. Snacks, defined as food or drink consumed between main meals, provided 23% of daily energy intake and were chosen from sources higher in CHO and lower in fat and protein than foods chosen at meals. The dietary behaviors of these elite athletes were generally consistent with guidelines for sports nutrition, but intakes during and after training sessions were often sub-optimal. Although it is of interest to study the periodicity of fluid and food intake by athletes, it is difficult to compare across studies due to a lack of standardized terminology.
Louise M. Burke, Gary Slater, Elizabeth M. Broad, Jasmina Haukka, Sofie Modulon, and William G. Hopkins
Pablo M. García-Rovés, Serafina Fernández, Manuel Rodríguez, Javier Pérez-Landaluce, and Angeles M. Patterson
The aim of this study is to accurately describe the eating pattern and nutritional status of international elite flatwater paddlers during 1 week of a high volume training camp. Ten male and 5 female international elite flatwater paddlers were recruited to take part in this study. These athletes were all members of the Spanish National Team. To assess the intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients, we used the weighed food intake method carried out by an observer. Biochemical and hematological profiles were also obtained. Average daily energy intake in male and female flatwater paddlers was 21.5 ± 2.3 and 16.5 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively. Furthermore, the male athletes showed average carbohydrate and protein intakes of 7.5 ±0.8 and 2.2 ±0.3 g ·kg·1 body weight - day ’, respectively. Similar intakes were found in female paddlers. carbohydrate 7.3 ± 1.1 and protein 2.0±0.3g·kg·1 body weight·day·1. Daily relative contribution to energy from fat was higher than recommended for sports practitioners or sedentary people (< 30 % of daily energy) in both genders (39.1 ± 2.1 and 40.2± 2.9% for men and women, respectively). Nevertheless, this diet with a high fat content (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) did not seem to influence the paddlers’ blood lipid profile that presented low values for total cholesterol and tryglicerides and high values for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Flatwater paddlers’ micronutrient intake was higher than Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intake (RDA/DRIs), except for folate that is close to DRI values. Further studies are required in order to understand whether this level of fat intake could impair highly trained athletes’ performance and health.
Hannah Cooper and Stacy Winter
Disordered eating is a psychological ailment that befalls many athletes and can persist into retirement. Links have been established between disordered eating and societal and sport-specific pressures; however, little research has focused on the perspective of retired athletes in a time-based sport. The purpose of the current research was to explore the conceptualization of disordered eating in relation to swimming participation, how retirement affects eating patterns, and ways to mitigate disordered eating. Following IPA methodological guidelines, a homogeneous sample of retired swimmers (N = 6) was chosen for semistructured, participant-driven interviews determined by scores on a disordered-eating questionnaire. Three superordinate themes were revealed: (1) pressures unique to swimming, (2) transition to eating pattern awareness, and (3) maintaining ideal eating patterns in retirement. The results revealed a combination of novel findings and expansion of previous data on disordered eating. Suggestions for applications of current findings and for future research are also discussed.
Kelly Anne Erdman, Jasmine Tunnicliffe, Victor M. Lun, and Raylene A. Reimer
The purpose of this study was to determine the meal- and snack-eating frequency and the nutritional composition of each eating occasion of Canadian high-performance athletes during training. Athletes from 8 Canadian Sport Centres prospectively completed 3-d dietary records including all food, fluid, and supplements consumed. The time of consumption and whether the consumption was a meal or snack were also identified. The dietary records were analyzed for energy (kcal) and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, protein, and fat) and compared based on gender, age, meal vs. snack, and training vs. rest days. Three hundred twenty-four athletic subjects (64% female and 36% male) completed the study. On average, the athletes ate 4.8 ± 0.8 times daily. Nearly all athletes consumed 3 daily meals of breakfast (98.9%), lunch (97.9%), and dinner (98.7%), with few having snacks: 57%, 71.6%, and 58.1% of athletes consumed an a.m., p.m., and evening snack, respectively. Training-day meal frequency did not differ from that during rest days; however, fewer snacks were consumed on rest days. A.m. and p.m. snacks were consumed significantly more often on training days than rest days. Overall, snacks contributed 24.3% of total daily energy intake. Few dietary variations were discovered between genders, while the youngest athletes (<18 yr) ate less often, especially their morning snack, than the older athletes. In conclusion, Canadian high-performance athletes self-adjusted their energy intakes on training vs. rest days primarily by snacking less and reducing their carbohydrate and protein intakes on rest days, yet they consistently ate regular meals.
Anna Robins and Marion M. Hetherington
A qualitative research study investigated food choice by triathletes prior to training and competition, and gauged attitudes towards nutritional management. Five focus groups were conducted with 7 male and 6 female non-elite triath-letes. Sessions were semi-structured, tape recorded, and transcribed verbatim for coding and analysis. Transcripts were coded using grounded theory and higher order themes emerged including: “somatic complaints,” “performance,” “trust,” “preferences,” and “routine.” Food choices, especially those of the more competitive triathletes, were made to maximize performance. Choices were based on past experience and “trial and error” rather than specialist advice. Subjects varied in nutritional knowledge, which appeared to relate to the level of competitiveness. More competitive triathletes were interested in improving performance but distrusted others making their nutritional choices. Less competitive triathletes embraced nutritional manipulation for gains in cognitive and athletic performance. “Trust” became a focus of the study and warrants further investigation, as this is a crucial component of providing nutritional advice to competitive athletes and to the general population.
Nura Alwan, Samantha L. Moss, Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Ian G. Davies, and Kevin Enright
al., 2015 ). More recently, Ismaeel et al. ( 2017 ) showed that FP athletes who used extreme restrictive eating patterns consumed significantly less protein (123 ± 23 g cf. 65 ± 16 g, p = .02), sodium (4,060 ± 397 mg cf. 2,636 ± 1,028 mg, p = .03), vitamin E (10 ± 2 mg cf. 6 ± 1 mg, p = .03), and
Lori M. Cox, Christopher D. Lantz, and Jerry L. Mayhew
Early identification of potentially harmful eating patterns is critical in the effective remediation of such behaviors. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the degree lo which various factors including gender, family history, and athletic status predict disordered eating behavior; social physique anxiety and percent body fat were added as potential predictor variables. The eating behaviors of student-athletes and nonathlete students were also compared. One hundred eighty undergraduate students (males = 49, females =131) provided demographic information and completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS). Stepwise multiple-regression analysis indicated that social physique anxiety, gender, and body fat (%Fat) combined to predict 34% of disordered eating behaviors: EAT = 0.921 SPA - 1.05 %Fat + 10.95 Gender (1 = M. 2 = F) - 17.82 (R 2 = .34, SE = 4.68). A one-way ANOVA comparing ihe eating behaviors of athletes and nonathletes revealed no significant difference between these groups.
Justine J. Reel and Diane L. Gill
Seventy-three college female and 84 high school female cheerleaders participated in the current study on eating disorders and pressures within cheerleading. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS), and CHEER, a measure developed by the authors to identify pressures within cheerleading. A one-way MANOVA indicated significant differences between high school and college cheerleaders on CHEER and SPAS. Correlational analyses revealed a strong relation between SPAS, body dissatisfaction scores, and eating behavior, suggesting that body image is an important predictor for eating disorders in cheerleaders. Moreover, although high school cheerleaders reported fewer pressures than their college counterparts, they exhibited greater body dissatisfaction and disordered eating patterns.
Robert J. Brustad and Michelle Ritter-Taylor
Psychological processes in sport are inextricably linked to the social contexts within which they occur. However, research and practice in applied sport psychology have shown only marginal concern for the social dimensions of participation. As a consequence of stronger ties to clinical and counseling psychology than to social psychology, the prevailing model of intervention in applied sport psychology has been individually centered. Focus at the individual level has been further bolstered by cognitive emphases in modem psychology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the need for a balanced consideration of social and personal influences. Four social psychological dimensions of interest will be explored, including athletic subculture membership; athletic identity concerns; social networks of influence; and leadership processes. The relevance of these forms of influence will be examined in relation to applied concerns in the areas of athlete academic performance, overtraining and burnout, and disordered eating patterns. At minimum, consultants need to address contextual and relational correlates of psychological and performance issues.
This study assessed the nutrient intake and eating behavior in Norwegian female elite athletes suffering from eating disorders (ED) who met the criteria for anorexia nervosa (AN), anorexia athletica (AA), or bulimia nervosa (BN). The subjects included 7 AN, 43 AA, 42 BN, and 30 controls. Three-day and 24-hr food records were used to assess energy and nutrient intake. Results revealed that a significant number of AN and AA athletes have diets too low in energy and nutrients, the mean intake for energy and CHO being lower than recommended for active females. A significant number did not reach the protein level recommended for athletes. In addition, there were low intakes of several micronutrients, most notably calcium, vitamin D, and iron. The energy and nutritional inadequacy, combined with the use of purging, are of major concern since the athletes in this study were relatively young. It is unknown whether the abnormal eating pattern is a consequence of ED or is typical of top level athletes.