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Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Miriam González-Izal, Rafael Grazioli, Igor Setuain, Ronei Silveira Pinto and Mikel Izquierdo

hamstring and quadriceps strength (ie, concentric and eccentric) and resistance to fatigue are important mechanisms for improving functional knee status in high level and recreational athletes. 3 Eccentric strength training has been demonstrated to be a substantial intervention for promoting neuromuscular

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Daniel D. Cohen, Bingnan Zhao, Brian Okwera, Martyn J. Matthews and Anne Delextrat

Purpose:

To evaluate the effect of simulated soccer on the hamstrings eccentric torque-angle profile and angle of peak torque (APTeccH), and on the hamstrings:quadriceps torque ratio at specific joint angles (ASHecc:Qcon).

Methods:

The authors assessed dominant-limb isokinetic concentric and eccentric knee flexion and concentric knee extension at 120°/s in 9 semiprofessional male soccer players immediately before and after they completed the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST).

Results:

The LIST resulted in significant decreases in eccentric hamstrings torque at 60°, 50°, and 10° and a significant (21.8%) decrease in ASHecc:Qcon at 10° (P < .05). APTeccH increased from 7.1° ± 1.0° to 18.8° ± 4.2° (P < .05). Eccentric hamstrings peak torque significantly declined from 185.1 ± 70.4 N·m pre-LIST to 150.9 ± 58.5 N·m post-LIST (P = .002), but there were no significant changes in hamstrings or quadriceps concentric peak torque (P = .312, .169, respectively).

Conclusions:

Simulated soccer results in a selective loss of eccentric hamstrings torque and hamstrings-to-quadriceps muscle balance at an extended joint position and a shift in the eccentric hamstrings APT to a shorter length, changes that could increase vulnerability to hamstrings injury. These findings suggest that injury-risk screening could be improved by evaluating the eccentric hamstrings torque-angle profile and hamstrings strength-endurance and that the development of hamstrings fatigue resistance and long-length eccentric strength may reduce injury incidence.

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

after eccentric training compared with concentric training ( Roig et al., 2009 ). Roig et al. ( 2009 ) suggested that training in which there is a predominance of an eccentric muscle action may be associated with increases in total and eccentric strength in adults when compared with training with a

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Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Jason Moran, Olaf Prieske, Senda Sammoud, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Urs Granacher

physical performance in team handball is of great importance. Resistance training is an effective way of increasing muscular strength in young females. 4 However, it has previously been shown that eccentric strength training is more effective than single-mode concentric or combined concentric

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Eleftherios Kellis, Spiros Kellis, Vasilios Gerodimos and Vasiliki Manou

The reliable examination of isokinetic parameters in young athletes is important for the establishment of appropriate strength testing protocols. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of peak moments, non-preferred/preferred leg and reciprocal ratios during isokinetic knee efforts in young soccer players. Thirteen circumpubertal (age = 13.0 ± 0.4 years) soccer players performed maximum knee extension and flexion efforts at 30, 120 and 180°·s1 in two occasions, a week apart. The reliability of the peak moments was high, with reliability coefficients ranging from 0.71 to 0.98. The non-preferred/preferred leg and reciprocal ratios demonstrated moderate to high reliability (coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.87). The reliable examination of moments of force and ratio measurements during eccentric tests and at fast angular velocities in young soccer players requires extensive familiarization of the subjects prior to the main test.

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Mathieu Lacome, Simon Avrillon, Yannick Cholley, Ben M. Simpson, Gael Guilhem and Martin Buchheit

.80) 30/33/37 Unclear Knee-flexors eccentric strength, N 326.4 (48.1) 325.3 (26.2) 0.4 (10.2) 0.03 (0.76) 35/35/30 Unclear Expected knee-flexors strength, N 291.4 (20.5) 286.7 (23.0) −1.7 (6.3) −0.21 (0.80) 19/30/51 Unclear Δ Strength vs expected, % 11.7 (12.1) 14.1 (12.4) −1.4 (46.2) −0.03 (0.88) 33

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Michael P. Godard, David L. Williamson, David A. Porter, Gregory A. Rowden and Scott W. Trappe

This investigation examined alterations in neuromuscular drive for dynamic and static muscle contractions, muscle strength, and cross-sectional area (CSA) with a 12-week progressive resistance-training program (PRT). Nine healthy men (70.0 ± 1.7 years) were evaluated for maximal and submaximal neuromuscular drive (integrated electromyography [IEMG]), whole-muscle strength, isokinetic power, and thigh CSA. The results demonstrated no significant differences pre- to post-PRT in the submaximal IEMG signals (p > .05). IEMG increased (p < .05) for the maximal static contraction (29% ± 12%) and isokinetic velocities concentrically and eccentrically. There was an increase (p < .05) in maximal static strength (27% ± 5%), isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength, muscle power, IRM (47% ± 6%), and CSA (6% ± 1%; p < .05). The results reveal significant neuromuscular-drive alterations in concentric and eccentric dynamic contractions with PRT in older men and indicate that their neuromuscular drive contributes significantly to improving their concentric and eccentric skeletal-muscle strength.

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T. Brock Symons, Anthony A. Vandervoort, Charles L. Rice, Tom J. Overend and Greg D. Marsh

Because of the need for efficient, consistent strength measurements, the test–retest reliability of concentric, isometric, and eccentric strength; concentric work; and concentric power was determined in older women without a familiarization session. The reliability of measures derived from a single peak score were compared with those derived from an averaged score. On 2 occasions 25 older women with a mean age of 72 ± 6 years performed 3 submaximal knee extensions and 5 maximal contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer at 90°/s (CON), 0°/s, and –90°/s on both lower limbs. Statistical analyses for peak and averaged values (best 3 contractions of 5) exhibited good relative reliability (ICCs > .88), except for CON power. Typical error as a coefficient of variation and ratio limits of agreement for peak and averaged score values were larger than desired, with CON power scores demonstrating unacceptable error ranges. Although relative reliability of this 1-session assessment protocol was acceptable, further research is needed to determine whether additional practice trials could enhance absolute reliability.

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Martin Buchheit, Yannick Cholley, Mark Nagel and Nicholas Poulos

Purpose:

To examine the effect of body mass (BM) on eccentric knee-flexor strength using the Nordbord and offer simple guidelines to control for the effect of BM on knee-flexor strength.

Methods:

Data from 81 soccer players (U17, U19, U21, senior 4th French division, and professionals) and 41 Australian Football League (AFL) players were used for analysis. They all performed 1 set of 3 maximal repetitions of the bilateral Nordic hamstring exercise, with the greatest strength measure used for analysis. The main regression equation obtained from the overall sample was used to predict eccentric knee-flexor strength from a given BM (moderate TEE, 22%). Individual deviations from the BM-predicted score were used as a BM-free index of eccentric knee- flexor strength.

Results:

There was a large (r = .55, 90% confidence limits .42;.64) correlation between eccentric knee-flexor strength and BM. Heavier and older players (professionals, 4th French division, and AFL) outperformed their lighter and younger (U17–U21) counterparts, with the soccer professionals presenting the highest absolute strength. Professional soccer players were the only ones to show strength values likely slightly greater than those expected for their BM.

Conclusions:

Eccentric knee-flexor strength, as assessed with the Nordbord, is largely BM-dependent. To control for this effect, practitioners may compare actual test performances with the expected strength for a given BM, using the following predictive equation: Eccentric strength (N) = 4 × BM (kg) + 26.1. Professional soccer players with specific knee-flexor-training history and enhanced neuromuscular performance may show higher than expected values.

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Kris Beattie, Brian P. Carson, Mark Lyons and Ian C. Kenny

Maximum- and reactive-strength qualities both have important roles in athletic movements and sporting performance. Very little research has investigated the relationship between maximum strength and reactive strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between maximum-strength (isometric midthigh-pull peak force [IMTP PF]) and reactive-strength (drop-jump reactive-strength index [DJ-RSI]) variables at 0.3-m, 0.4-m, 0.5-m, and 0.6-m box heights. A secondary aim was to investigate the between- and within-group differences in reactive-strength characteristics between relatively stronger athletes (n = 11) and weaker athletes (n = 11). Forty-five college athletes across various sports were recruited to participate in the study (age, 23.7 ± 4.0 y; mass, 87.5 ± 16.1 kg; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m). Pearson correlation results showed that there was a moderate association (r = .302–.431) between maximum-strength variables (absolute, relative, and allometric scaled PF) and RSI at 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 m (P ≤ .05). In addition, 2-tailed independent-samples t tests showed that the RSIs for relatively stronger athletes (49.59 ± 2.57 N/kg) were significantly larger than those of weaker athletes (33.06 ± 2.76 N/kg) at 0.4 m (Cohen d = 1.02), 0.5 m (d = 1.21), and 0.6 m (d = 1.39) (P ≤ .05). Weaker athletes also demonstrated significant decrements in RSI as eccentric stretch loads increased at 0.3-m through 0.6-m box heights, whereas stronger athletes were able to maintain their reactive-strength ability. This research highlights that in specific sporting scenarios, when there are high eccentric stretch loads and fast stretch-shortening-cycle demands, athletes’ reactive-strength ability may be dictated by their relative maximal strength, specifically eccentric strength.