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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

after eccentric training compared with concentric training ( Roig et al., 2009 ). Roig et al. ( 2009 ) suggested that training in which there is a predominance of an eccentric muscle action may be associated with increases in total and eccentric strength in adults when compared with training with a

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Michael P. Godard, David L. Williamson, David A. Porter, Gregory A. Rowden and Scott W. Trappe

This investigation examined alterations in neuromuscular drive for dynamic and static muscle contractions, muscle strength, and cross-sectional area (CSA) with a 12-week progressive resistance-training program (PRT). Nine healthy men (70.0 ± 1.7 years) were evaluated for maximal and submaximal neuromuscular drive (integrated electromyography [IEMG]), whole-muscle strength, isokinetic power, and thigh CSA. The results demonstrated no significant differences pre- to post-PRT in the submaximal IEMG signals (p > .05). IEMG increased (p < .05) for the maximal static contraction (29% ± 12%) and isokinetic velocities concentrically and eccentrically. There was an increase (p < .05) in maximal static strength (27% ± 5%), isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength, muscle power, IRM (47% ± 6%), and CSA (6% ± 1%; p < .05). The results reveal significant neuromuscular-drive alterations in concentric and eccentric dynamic contractions with PRT in older men and indicate that their neuromuscular drive contributes significantly to improving their concentric and eccentric skeletal-muscle strength.

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T. Brock Symons, Anthony A. Vandervoort, Charles L. Rice, Tom J. Overend and Greg D. Marsh

Because of the need for efficient, consistent strength measurements, the test–retest reliability of concentric, isometric, and eccentric strength; concentric work; and concentric power was determined in older women without a familiarization session. The reliability of measures derived from a single peak score were compared with those derived from an averaged score. On 2 occasions 25 older women with a mean age of 72 ± 6 years performed 3 submaximal knee extensions and 5 maximal contractions on an isokinetic dynamometer at 90°/s (CON), 0°/s, and –90°/s on both lower limbs. Statistical analyses for peak and averaged values (best 3 contractions of 5) exhibited good relative reliability (ICCs > .88), except for CON power. Typical error as a coefficient of variation and ratio limits of agreement for peak and averaged score values were larger than desired, with CON power scores demonstrating unacceptable error ranges. Although relative reliability of this 1-session assessment protocol was acceptable, further research is needed to determine whether additional practice trials could enhance absolute reliability.

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Lauren J. Lattimer, Joel L. Lanovaz, Jonathan P. Farthing, Stéphanie Madill, Soo Kim, Stephen Robinovitch and Cathy Arnold

decreased maximal elbow angle, energy absorption, elbow joint moment, and increased force under the hand during a forward descent at three body angles. Additionally, we hypothesized that older women would have decreased UE concentric, isometric, and eccentric strength and decreased trunk activation when

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Adilson Santos Andrade de Sousa, Marilia A. Correia, Breno Quintella Farah, Glauco Saes, Antônio Eduardo Zerati, Pedro Puech-Leao, Nelson Wolosker, Gabriel G. Cucato and Raphael M. Ritti-Dias

-014-9408-4 10.1007/s12529-014-9408-4 Basyches , M. , Wolosker , N. , Ritti-Dias , R.M. , Camara , L.C. , Puech-Leao , P. , & Battistella , L.R. ( 2009 ). Eccentric strength and endurance in patients with unilateral intermittent claudication . Clinics, 64 ( 4 ), 319 – 322 . doi:10.1590/S1807

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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

: Decrease in elderly men and increase in patients with gastric carcinoma . Oncology Reports, 8 , 311 – 314 . PubMed ID: 11182046 Jouris , K.B. , McDaniel , J.L. , & Weiss , E.P. ( 2011 ). The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the inflammatory response to eccentric strength exercise

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

.E.B. , & Catai , A.M. ( 2008 ). High eccentric strength training reduces heart rate variability in healthy older men . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42 ( 1 ), 59 – 63 . PubMed ID: 17562745 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.035246 10.1136/bjsm.2007.035246 Mostarda , C.T. , Rodrigues , B. , De Moraes , O

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Tom Clifford

, J.L. , Ezekiel , U.R. , & Weiss , E.P. ( 2016 ). Effects of short-term docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on markers of inflammation after eccentric strength exercise in women . Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 15 ( 1 ), 176 . PubMed ID: 26957941 Cui , H. , Kong , Y. , & Zhang

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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi and Mauro Gonçalves

similar ankle FD (≈75%), but older adults had greater FD at the knee (42% vs. 30%). Of note, the researchers measured maximal knee and ankle eccentric strength at angular velocities that approximated those during stair descent, which may explain why their knee extensor FD estimates are lower than other