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Ruud J. R. Den Hartigh, Paul L. C. Van Geert, Nico W. Van Yperen, Ralf F. A. Cox and Christophe Gernigon

This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament, consisting of manipulated races. As hypothesized, athletes who had developed long-term positive PM after two successful races were less sensitive to a negative momentum scenario in the third race, compared with athletes who had developed long-term negative PM after two unsuccessful races. More specifically, the exerted efforts, perceptions of momentum, and self-efficacy were higher for participants who had developed long-term positive PM, and their perceptions of momentum and self-efficacy decreased less rapidly. These results illustrate a typical complex dynamical systems property, namely interconnected time scales, and provide deeper insights into the dynamical nature of PM.

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Luis Peñailillo, Karen Mackay and Chris R. Abbiss

immediately after each 5-minute bout, participants were asked to rate their perceived effort, exertion, and muscle pain (described below). Throughout both CONC and ECC experimental trials, HR (S625x; Polar, Oulu, Finland) and oxygen consumption (Ergocard, Medisoft) were continuously measured. The gas analyzer

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Stacey Alvarez-Alvarado, Graig M. Chow, Nicole T. Gabana, Robert C. Hickner and Gershon Tenenbaum

than a passive view of perceptions. The effort-related attention model, which builds on Rejeski’s ( 1985 ) parallel-processing model, views attention allocation as an imperative mediator between physical workload and perceived effort/exertion ( Tenenbaum, 2001 ). Specifically, during low physical

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Athanasios Kolovelonis and Marios Goudas

own cognitive processes ( Pieschl, 2009 ). Calibration is closely linked to self-regulated learning ( Dinsmore & Parkinson, 2013 ; Pieschl, 2009 ), and it relates to factors such as effort exertion, strategy use, and selection of tasks. Actually, calibration is depicted as a link between

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet and Armand Chatard

. Our main aim was to test the conjecture that evaluative threat facilitates effort exertion. However, because in the present study we did not aim to demonstrate the mechanism by which this effect occurs, it can be qualified as exploratory. In the present study, we also introduced a new paradigm that

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

intensity levels. For instance, the lesson on the overload principle requires students to perform activities at various intensity levels and relate specific physiological responses to the concepts associated with physical effort exertion and the target heart-rate zone. In comparison with the Science, PE and