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Alfredo Bravo-Sánchez, Pablo Abián, Filipa Sousa, Fernando Jimenez, and Javier Abián-Vicén

( Agyapong-Badu, Warner, Samuel, & Stokes, 2016 ), and there are no data about age-related changes in tendon mechanical properties measured with this equipment. Strain elastography (SE) using ultrasound also allows a noninvasive assessment of tissue mechanical properties ( Park & Kwon, 2011 ). The SE, based

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Brian J. Diefenbach, Anthony S. Kulas, Christopher J. Curran, and Patrick M. Rider

Shear wave elastography (SWE), an expansion of traditional ultrasound, is an imaging technique used to measure the material properties of soft tissues. This is done by noninvasively quantifying the material properties of the tissues in real time. Images are produced by shear waves sent into the

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Zachary J. Domire, Matthew B. McCullough, Qingshan Chen, and Kai-Nan An

A common complication associated with aging is the stiffening of skeletal muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) to study this phenomenon in vivo. Twenty female subjects were included in the study with an age range of 50 to 70 years. Shear modulus was calculated for the tibialis anterior of each subject. There was not a significant relationship between age and shear modulus. However, three subjects had abnormally high values and were among the oldest subjects tested. There was a significant relationship between age and tissue stiffness homogeneity. More research is needed to determine whether the changes seen here are reflective of increased tissue cross-linking or related to reduced muscle quality. However, MRE shows promise as a tool to study aging-related muscle stiffness changes or to evaluate treatments to counteract these changes.

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Kentaro Chino and Hideyuki Takahashi

mass lead to a further understanding the association of muscle stiffness with passive joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Shear wave elastography is an ultrasound-based imaging technique that measures shear wave velocity propagating in a region of interest defined on

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Ryota Akagi, Tomofumi Shikiba, Jun Tanaka, and Hideyuki Takahashi

We investigated the effect of a 6-week resistance training program on the shear modulus of the triceps brachii (TB). Twentythree young men were randomly assigned to either the training (n = 13) or control group (n = 10). Before and after conducting the resistance training program, the shear modulus of the long head of the TB was measured at the point 70% along the length of the upper arm from the acromial process of the scapula to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus using shear wave ultrasound elastography. Muscle thickness of the long head of the TB was also determined at the same site by ultrasonography used during both tests. A resistance exercise was performed 3 days a week for 6 weeks using a dumbbell mass-adjusted to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The training effect on the muscle thickness and 1RM was significant. Nevertheless, the muscle shear modulus was not significantly changed after the training program. From the perspective of muscle mechanical properties, the present results indicate that significant adaptation must occur to make the TB more resistant to subsequent damaging bouts during the 6-week training program to target the TB.

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Feasibility of Using Magnetic Resonance Elastography to Study the Effect of Aging on Shear Modulus of Skeletal Muscle Zachary J. Domire * Matthew B. McCullough * Qingshan Chen * Kai-Nan An * 2 2009 25 1 93 97 10.1123/jab.25.1.93 jab Journal of Applied Biomechanics 1065-8483 1543-2688 2009 25 1 10

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Alif Laila Tisha, Ashley Allison Armstrong, Amy Wagoner Johnson, and Citlali López-Ortiz

. In this case, the passive knee extension could have activated the stretch reflex, thus biasing the stiffness measurements. By contrast, Lee et al 14 used shear wave ultrasound elastography to evaluate passive stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius and tibialis muscles. The shear wave ultrasound

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Laura C. Slane, Stijn Bogaerts, Darryl G. Thelen, and Lennart Scheys

. Clin Biomech . 2006 ; 21 ( 7 ): 748 – 754 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.03.004 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.03.004 15. Chernak LA , Thelen DG . Tendon motion and strain patterns evaluated with two-dimensional ultrasound elastography . J Biomech . 2012 ; 45 ( 15 ): 2618 – 2623 . PubMed

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William H. Clark and Jason R. Franz

muscle elasticity by shear wave elastography: association with passive ankle joint stiffness and sex differences . Eur J Appl Physiol . 2016 ; 116 ( 4 ): 823 – 830 . PubMed ID: 26874517 doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3339-5 10.1007/s00421-016-3339-5 26874517 23. Mazzaro N , Nielsen JF , Grey MJ

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Jordan D. Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H. Walshe, Elizabeth E. MacKinley, James Dick, Stuart D.R. Galloway, Kevin D. Tipton, and Oliver C. Witard

.L. , Perrins , M. , Hunter , A. , … Roberts , N. ( 2017 ). MR elastography measurement of the effect of passive warmup prior to eccentric exercise on thigh muscle mechanical properties . Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 46 ( 4 ), 1115 – 1127 . doi:10.1002/jmri.25642 10.1002/jmri.25642 Lago