This study examined time efficiency in wheelchair locomotive activities among four different wheelchairs propelled by elders with arms and/or legs. Sixteen elder manual wheelchair users propelled her/his own wheelchair and three wheelchairs (the main drive-axis wheels positioning in front, middle, and rear, respectively) in the test of seven wheelchair locomotive activities of daily living. A Mixed-Model ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test (p < .05) were employed to determine the time efficiency among four wheelchairs and three groups. The results demonstrated better time efficiency resulted from propelling the mid drive-axis and/or rear drive-axis wheelchairs; using arms and legs simultaneously propelling wheelchairs was more time efficient than using the arms or legs only in the selected locomotive activities.
Yong Tai Wang, Randy Bernard, Clint Cope, Li-Shan Chang, Weerawat Limroongreungrat and Stephen Sprigle
Murray F. Mitchell
Information about whose knowledge is accepted as important is valuable in understanding how a profession evolves. The term elders describes the individuals who control invisible networks of prestige and who determine what information is accepted for publication in professional journals. These published works stand as the foundation for the knowledge base of a discipline. The purpose of this article was to identify the elders in physical education teacher education (PETE) and to trace their academic genealogy. Elders were defined as major contributors to the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1981 through 1989. The articles published by these subjects were generally, but not exclusively, research-related. Hence, aspects related to faculty research performance were selected as descriptors that may facilitate comparisons of PETE professors to other groups of professors and to future PETE professors. Subjects’ gender, prestige of doctoral program, mentoring, and prestige of current institution of employment were studied as these indicators represent major correlates with research productivity.
Jill N. Schulte and Kevin E. Yarasheski
Advancing age is associated with a reduction in skeletal muscle protein, muscle strength, muscle quality, and chemical modifications that may impair protein function. Sarcopenia has been coupled with physical disability, frailty, and a loss of independent function (5, 19). Using stable isotope tracer methodologies and mass spectrometric detection, we observed: (a) 76–92-year-old physically frail and 62–74-year-old middle-age adults have lower mixed muscle protein synthetic rates than 20–32-year-old men and women; (b) 2 weeks and 3 months of weightlifting exercise increased the synthetic rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and mixed muscle proteins to a similar magnitude in frail, middle-age, and young women and men; (c) Serum myostatin-immunoreactive protein levels were elevated in physically frail women and were inversely correlated with lean mass. This suggests that the protein synthetic machinery adapts rapidly to increased contractile activity and that the adaptive response(s) are maintained even in frail elders.
Adam J. Nichol, Edward T. Hall, Will Vickery and Philip R. Hayes
, introduced in greater detail below) which are capable of providing a novel contribution to understanding the influence of practitioners ( Elder-Vass, 2010 ). While it is impractical to attempt to present a single, unifying explanation of critical realism (CR) here, due to the complex assemblage of ideas and
Riley Galloway, Robert Booker and Scott Owens
, & Elder, 2010 ). A research brief produced by active living research also shows that classroom-based PA can positively influence PA behaviors and on-task behaviors, and has potential benefits in several health measures, such as body mass index, waist circumference, aerobic capacity, muscle strength and
Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan
, 2006 ; Tshube, 2014 ; Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ) indicates that cultural practices are at the core of Batswana’s daily lives. For example, greeting elders is considered a fundamental cultural value ( Tshube & Hanrahan, 2016 ). Other cultural factors include the use of sangoma in sport and sport
Vandre C. Figueiredo, Michelle M. Farnfield, Megan L.R. Ross, Petra Gran, Shona L. Halson, Jonathan M. Peake, David Cameron-Smith and James F. Markworth
– 323 . doi:10.1038/ncb1547 10.1038/ncb1547 Vincent , E.E. , Elder , D.J.E. , Thomas , E.C. , Phillips , L. , Morgan , C. , Pawade , J. , . . . Tavaré , J.M. ( 2011 ). Akt phosphorylation on Thr308 but not on Ser473 correlates with Akt protein kinase activity in human non-small cell lung
Shane Pill and Brendon Hyndman
. Light , J. Quay , S. Harvey , & A. Mooney (Eds.), Contemporary developments in games teaching (pp. 193 – 206 ). New York, NY : Routledge . Wagemans , J. , Elder , J.H. , Kubovy , M. , Palmer , S.E. , Peterson , M.A. , Singh , M. , & von der Heydt , R. ( 2012 ). A century of
John Williams and Shane Pill
Aboriginal game ( ACARA, 2011 ). In planning our study, we were also directed by the Australian Capital Territory Government Education Directorate ( ACT GED, 2017 ) policy document and draft local guidelines for teaching Indigenous content in PE. The latter guidelines were compiled by the Aboriginal Elder
Alex Knowles, Tristan L. Wallhead and Tucker Readdy
of the sport education model . Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 15 , 401 – 418 . doi:10.1080/17408980903535800 10.1080/17408980903535800 Sallis , J.F. , McKenzie , T.L. , Conway , J.P. , Elder , J.P. , Prochaska , J.J. , Brown , M , … Alcaraz , J.E. ( 2003 ). Environmental