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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

, advocacy, and giving back to others were also evidenced in the data. Positive health outcomes and the joy achieved through competitive involvement were perceived as additional facilitators of elite sport participation. Both short-term and long-term goals were discussed in detail. Table 1 Major Themes and

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Carlos A. Muniesa, Zoraida Verde, Germán Diaz-Ureña, Catalina Santiago, Fernando Gutiérrez, Enrique Díaz, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Luisa Soares-Miranda and Alejandro Lucia

Growing evidence suggests that regular moderate-intensity physical activity is associated with an attenuation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening. However, more controversy exists regarding higher exercise loads such as those imposed by elite-sport participation.

Methods:

The authors investigated LTL differences between young elite athletes (n = 61, 54% men, age [mean ± SD] 27.2 ± 4.9 y) and healthy nonsmoker, physically inactive controls (n = 64, 52% men, 28.9 ± 6.3 y) using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results:

Elite athletes had, on average, higher LTL than control subjects, 0.89 ± 0.26 vs 0.78 ± 0.31, P = .013 for the group effect, with no significant sex (P = .995) or age effect (P = .114).

Conclusions:

The results suggest that young elite athletes have longer telomeres than their inactive peers. Further research might assess the LTL of elite athletes of varying ages compared with both age-matched active and inactive individuals.

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Rachael C. Stone, Shane N. Sweet, Marie-Josée Perrier, Tara MacDonald, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung

seemingly positive results and potential theoretical implications related to elite sport participation were also observed for adults with a physical disability described as more recreational athletes, albeit to a lesser extent than elite athletes. Recreational sport participants with and without a physical

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A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

Papathomas and Lavallee ( 2010 ) who also reported a struggle to disclose problems. Sport psychologists could step forward as the confidential person, that so many athletes seem to need, and they should turn to more proactive questioning on possible side effects of elite sport participation. These