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Paul J. Makhoul, Kathryn E. Sinden, Renée S. MacPhee and Steven L. Fischer

Paramedics represent a unique occupational group where the nature of their work, providing prehospital emergency care, makes workplace modifications to manage and control injury risks difficult. Therefore, the provision of workplace education and training to support safe lifting remains a viable and important approach. There is, however, a lack of evidence describing movement strategies that may be optimal for paramedic work. The purpose of this study was to determine if a strategy leveraging a greater contribution of work from the lower body relative to the torso was associated with lower biomechanical exposures on the spine. Twenty-five active duty paramedics performed 3 simulated lifting activities common to paramedic work. Ground reaction forces and whole body kinematics were recorded to calculate: peak spine moment and angle about the L4/L5 flexion-extension axis as indicators of biomechanical exposure; and, joint work, integrated from net joint power as a measure of technique inclusive of movement dynamics. Paramedics generating more work from the lower body, relative to the trunk, were more likely to experience lower peak L4/L5 spine moments and angles. These data can inform the development of workplace training and education on safe lifting that focuses on paramedics generating more work from the lower body.

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Jeffrey J. Martin

. This is referred to as the disability paradox ( Albrecht & Devlieger, 1999 ). In a study of 233 emergency care workers, 18% reported that they believed they could have a severe SCI and still be happy to be alive, compared with 92% of those with an SCI. In addition, only 17% (vs. 86% of individuals with

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Alan L. Smith, Karl Erickson and Leapetswe Malete

sports-related injuries in children from NHS emergency care dataset Oxfordshire pilot: An ecological study . Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 112 ( 3 ), 109 – 118 . PubMed ID: 30384797 doi:10.1177/0141076818808430 10.1177/0141076818808430 Kochanek , J. , & Erickson , K. ( 2019

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Margaret C. Morrissey, Michael R. Szymanski, Andrew J. Grundstein and Douglas J. Casa

.T. , Holschen , J.C. , Hosokawa , Y. , . . . McClaine , K.B. ( 2018 ). Consensus statement—prehospital care of exertional heat stroke . Prehospital Emergency Care, 22 ( 3 ), 392 – 397 . PubMed ID: 29336710 doi:10.1080/10903127.2017.1392666 10.1080/10903127.2017.1392666 Ben-Simchon , C. , Tsur , H