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Kelly L. Simonton, Alex C. Garn and Melinda Ann Solmon

Purpose:

Grounded in control-value theory, a model of students’ achievement emotions in physical education (PE) was investigated.

Methods:

A path analysis tested hypotheses that students’ (N = 529) perceptions of teacher responsiveness, assertiveness, and clarity predict control and value beliefs which, in turn, predict enjoyment and boredom.

Results:

Teacher clarity predicted student control (β = .31; R 2= .09) and value (β = .21; R 2= .07) beliefs. Value and control beliefs positively predicted enjoyment (β = .71; β = .11; R 2 = .58) and negatively predicted boredom (β = -.61; β = -.13; R2 = .47).

Discussion:

Findings provide meaningful information about the source of students’ emotional experiences in PE. The importance of instructional clarity within the model highlights the need for teachers to use a variety of clarifying strategies during instruction. The strong links between value beliefs and emotions suggest teachers need to explicitly discuss the intrinsic and extrinsic worth of PE content.

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Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby and Arne Nieuwenhuys

dysfunctional cognitions and emotions ( Jones & Harwood, 2008 ; McPherson, 2000 ). In this process of evaluation, athletes may consider the emotional state of their fellow competitors and attempt to determine whether an opponent is in his or her optimal emotional state for performance ( Hanin, 2003 ). The

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Marc V. Jones

Emotions play a central role in sport performance. Accordingly, it is important that athletes are able to draw on a range of strategies to enhance emotional control. The present paper outlines a number of strategies based on Lazarus’ cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Strategies are outlined that aim to change cognitions, resulting in either a more appropriate emotional response or a suppression of the expression of emotion and any maladaptive behavioral consequences. These techniques comprise self-statement modification, imagery, socratic dialogue, corrective experiences, self-analysis, didactic approach, storytelling metaphors and poetry, reframing, cognitive paradox, and use of problem-solving skills. Furthermore, given the changes in physiological arousal accompanying certain emotions, it is also suggested that general arousal control strategies could play an important role in emotional control.

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Ye Hoon Lee, Hyungil Harry Kwon and K. Andrew R. Richards

Emotional intelligence has received significant attention within the research literature related to education, psychology, and management in recent decades ( Hodzic, Scharfen, Ripoll, Holling, & Zenasni, 2017 ). Defined as the ability to perceive, understand, regulate, and utilize emotions ( Mayer

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Richard S. Lazarus

In this article, I have attempted to apply my cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, on which I have been working for over 50 years, to an understanding of performance in competitive sports. I begin with four metatheoretical and theoretical positions: (a) stress and emotion should be considered as a single topic; (b) discrete emotion categories offer the richest and most useful information; (c) appraisal, coping, and relational meaning are essential theoretical constructs for stress and emotion; and (d) although process and structure are both essential to understanding, when it comes to stress and the emotions, we cannot afford to under-emphasize process. These positions and elaborations of them lead to my examination of how a number of discrete emotions might influence performance in competitive sports.

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

There is growing research interest on how emotions can influence sport performance (e.g., Campo, Mellalieu, Ferrand, Mertinent, & Rosnet, 2012 ; Uphill, Groom, & Jones, 2014 ). Given the limits of information processing (e.g., Eysenck & Calvo, 1992 ), concentration, defined as the focus of

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Rich Neil, Harry C.R. Bowles, Scott Fleming and Sheldon Hanton

The purpose of the study was to conduct an in-depth examination of the stress and emotion process experienced by three sub-elite-level male cricketers over a series of five competitive performances. Using reflective diaries and follow-up semistructured interviews, the findings highlighted the impact of appraisal, coping, and emotion on performance, with perceptions of control and self-confidence emerging as variables that can influence the emotive and behavioral outcomes of a stressful transaction. Postperformance, guided athlete reflection was advanced as a valuable tool in the production and application of idiographic coping behaviors that could enhance perceptions of control and self-confidence and influence stress and emotion processes.

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Mickaël Campo, Stephen Mellalieu, Claude Ferrand, Guillaume Martinent and Elisabeth Rosnet

This study systematically reviewed the literature on the emotional processes associated with performance in team contact sports. To consider the entire emotional spectrum, Lazarus’s (1999) cognitive motivational relational theory was used as a guiding framework. An electronic search of the literature identified 48 of 5,079 papers as relevant. Anxiety and anger were found to be the most common emotions studied, potentially due to the combative nature of team contact sports. The influence of group processes on emotional experiences was also prominent. The findings highlight the need to increase awareness of the emotional experience in team contact sports and to develop emotion-specific regulation strategies. Recommendations for future research include exploring other emotions that might emerge from situations related to collisions (e.g., fright) and emotions related to relationships with teammates (e.g., guilt and compassion).

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Valentina D’Urso, Andreina Petrosso and Claudio Robazza

This study was mainly designed to contrast the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) emotion model and the performance profiling approach in predicting performance of rugby players based on normative, individualized, situational, and relatively stable characteristics. Pregame assessments were accomplished in 33 male Italian rugby players of a top-level team over a whole championship, and individual interviews were conducted at the end of the season. Performance differentiation and discrimination between athletes were reached on relatively stable qualities (i.e., constructs), according to predictions within the performance profile framework. Study findings also revealed that emotions modify widely during the game because of external events (e.g., behaviors of teammates or opponents) or individual behaviors (e.g., individual faults). In conclusion, findings add support to the contention that extending the IZOF model to other physical or performance related components would require situational rather than relatively stable qualities. On the other hand, the concept of zones extended to constructs seems beneficial for practical purposes.

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Anne Marte Pensgaard and Joan L. Duda

Drawing upon the Cognitive-Motivational-Relational Theory of Emotion (Lazarus, 1991, 1999, 2000) and Hanin’s (1993, 2000) conceptualization of emotions, the purpose of this study was threefold. First, the reported content, frequency, and intensity of emotions experienced by 61 athletes in relation to a stressful event when competing in the 2000 Olympic Games were determined. Second, the relationships between emotional responses and reported coping strategies and perceived coping effectiveness were examined. Finally, the degree to which emotions and perceived coping effectiveness predicted subjective and objective performance during the Olympics was ascertained. In general, the athletes experienced a high frequency of optimizing emotions. Optimizing emotions were related to coping effectiveness, which emerged as a positive predictor of objective competitive results. Coping effectiveness also positively predicted subjective performance while reported dysfunctional emotions emerged as a negative predictor.