The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.
Guillaume Martinent and Claude Ferrand
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet and Benoit Louvet
recently argued for the need to consider the social self in the study of emotions in the context of competitive sport (e.g., Campo, Mellalieu, Ferrand, Martinent, & Rosnet, 2012 ; Tamminen et al., 2016 ). Focusing especially on the consequences of social identity for competitive emotions among athletes
Paul A. Davis, Louise Davis, Samuel Wills, Ralph Appleby and Arne Nieuwenhuys
dysfunctional cognitions and emotions ( Jones & Harwood, 2008 ; McPherson, 2000 ). In this process of evaluation, athletes may consider the emotional state of their fellow competitors and attempt to determine whether an opponent is in his or her optimal emotional state for performance ( Hanin, 2003 ). The
Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse and Sebastian Ludyga
, this is problematic, as the Social Contract Theory ( Cosmides et al., 2005 ) claims, among others, that identifying and remembering faces of individuals breaking social rules is crucial for coping with cheaters, free riders, or defectors. Moreover, functional deficits in emotion processing, and the
Marc V. Jones
Emotions play a central role in sport performance. Accordingly, it is important that athletes are able to draw on a range of strategies to enhance emotional control. The present paper outlines a number of strategies based on Lazarus’ cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Strategies are outlined that aim to change cognitions, resulting in either a more appropriate emotional response or a suppression of the expression of emotion and any maladaptive behavioral consequences. These techniques comprise self-statement modification, imagery, socratic dialogue, corrective experiences, self-analysis, didactic approach, storytelling metaphors and poetry, reframing, cognitive paradox, and use of problem-solving skills. Furthermore, given the changes in physiological arousal accompanying certain emotions, it is also suggested that general arousal control strategies could play an important role in emotional control.
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
The concurrence of two opposite emotions is one of the most debated questions in contemporary emotion research. Traditional approaches to the study of consumer emotions tend to categorize consumption experiences as either positive or negative ( Oliver, 1993 ). Consumers who are satisfied with their
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie and Wang Suk Suh
associated with sponsor benefits such as purchase intention for a sponsor’s products ( Madrigal, 2000 ; Smith, Graetz, & Westerbeek, 2008 ). Studies have also shown that event emotions influence event-related evaluations and attitudes toward sponsors ( Chakraborti & Roy, 2013 ; Lee, Lee, Lee, & Babin, 2008
Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill and Daniel J. Madigan
Precompetition emotions can result in better or worse performance ( Beedie, Terry, & Lane, 2000 ). These are also part of an overall sporting experience for athletes that will influence their motivation and well-being ( Nicholls, Polman, & Levy, 2012 ). It is, therefore, unsurprising that sport
Richard S. Lazarus
In this article, I have attempted to apply my cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, on which I have been working for over 50 years, to an understanding of performance in competitive sports. I begin with four metatheoretical and theoretical positions: (a) stress and emotion should be considered as a single topic; (b) discrete emotion categories offer the richest and most useful information; (c) appraisal, coping, and relational meaning are essential theoretical constructs for stress and emotion; and (d) although process and structure are both essential to understanding, when it comes to stress and the emotions, we cannot afford to under-emphasize process. These positions and elaborations of them lead to my examination of how a number of discrete emotions might influence performance in competitive sports.