associated with sponsor benefits such as purchase intention for a sponsor’s products ( Madrigal, 2000 ; Smith, Graetz, & Westerbeek, 2008 ). Studies have also shown that event emotions influence event-related evaluations and attitudes toward sponsors ( Chakraborti & Roy, 2013 ; Lee, Lee, Lee, & Babin, 2008
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie, and Wang Suk Suh
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen, and Hyun-Woo Lee
The concurrence of two opposite emotions is one of the most debated questions in contemporary emotion research. Traditional approaches to the study of consumer emotions tend to categorize consumption experiences as either positive or negative ( Oliver, 1993 ). Consumers who are satisfied with their
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue
significantly influence how spectators experience flow. The opponent-process theory ( Solomon & Corbit, 1974 ) may account for the interactive effects between iTeam ID and emotions on flow. At the core of this theory is the idea that the more an individual is exposed to the same stimuli over time, the more the
Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer
research, the emotional experience of watching sports has been a topic of interest (e.g., Wann & Branscombe, 1992 ). Empirical research has found, for example, that the degree of team identification amplifies both positive and negative emotions ( Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994 ). In a recent study
Eldon E. Snyder
Previous studies of emotion in sport have examined team sports. The present research focuses on an individual sport—women’s collegiate gymnastics. Data were gathered during the gymnastics season of 1988-89 from 10 members of the team and its coach and trainer. The methodology included the use of photo-elicitation interviews and observations of women’s gymnastics. The emotion-work and categories of emotions described were displayed when the gymnasts were off stage, when preparing to compete, between events, and after competition. Discussion focuses on the control and management of emotions according to the “feeling rules” (i.e., the socially constructed subcultural norms of the sport). The gymnasts did display individual variations in their adherence to the feeling rules. Categories of emotion included nervousness, fear of pain and injury, frustration, and disappointment. Emotional social experiences included social psyching up and the happiness and joy associated with a successful performance. Consideration is given to some advantages and qualifications of the photo-elicitation technique.
.g., athletic shoes and clothing) may represent a better fit for athlete endorsements in general. However, endorsement campaigns that appeal to emotions or campaign slogans that emphasize feelings (as in the previous example) may engender consumers to rely more on their implicit attitudes as well as their
Marci D. Cottingham
The study of sport spectatorship has an increasing focus on the importance of fandom beyond fan violence. Fundamental to understanding fan behavior are the meaningful rituals and emotions experienced by fans. In this paper, I use the theoretical work of Randall Collins to examine the ritualistic outcomes of collective effervescence, emotional energy, and group symbols and solidarity among sport fans. I illustrate these concepts using case study data from participant observation of fans of a U.S. football team, the Pittsburgh Steelers, and content analysis of news articles. I extend Collins’ interaction ritual (IR) theory by taking the group as the unit of analysis and analyzing group solidarity beyond situational interactions and typical sport settings, including the significant life events of weddings and funerals. While critiquing Collins’ (2004) a priori portrayal of sports fans, the analysis advances IR theory, improving its utility for understanding sports fan behavior.
Charles P. Gallmeier
Dramaturgical analysis is used in a participant observation study of the emotional performances of professional hockey players before, during, and after professional games. The structure for the staging of these emotional displays is briefly described, but much more attention is placed on understanding the social processes involved in the mental or emotional preparation the players undergo in getting psyched up and “putting on the game face.” The staging of emotions is seen to evolve from expectation for emotional experience, to diffuse emotional readiness, and finally to quite specific emotional displays. The staging of emotions is shown to be directed by socialization agents (i.e., coach, trainer, teammates) who evoke rapidly shifting emotional expressions for each game day situation.
Joon Sung Lee, Dae Hee Kwak, and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
Athlete endorsers’ transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reasoning strategies, and consumer evaluations. By using an actual scandal involving an NFL player (i.e., Ray Rice), the results show that fan identification suppresses the experience of negative moral emotions but facilitates fans’ moral disengagement processes, which enables fans to support the wrongdoer. Moreover, negative moral emotions motivate the moral coupling process. Findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior literature that highly identified fans seem to regulate negative emotions but deliberately select moral disengagement reasoning strategies to maintain their positive stance toward the wrongdoer and associated brands.
Joon-Ho Kang, Richard P. Bagozzi, and Jawang Oh
Although emotion has occasionally been examined as a dependent variable or outcome of physical activity involvement, it rarely has been studied as an antecedent. This study examines the role of emotion in decision-making processes for participant sport consumption. A structural model is proposed to integrate emotions with self-image congruency and attitudes as antecedents of the decision to initiate physical activity in the consumption context. Context effects were investigated by two scenarios: (1) joining a private health club and (2) skiing in an indoor ski resort. A total of 199 persons responded, and structural equation models were examined. The results indicate that emotion mediates the influence of attitudes and self-image congruency on the decision to join the club and resort. The pattern of the relationships among utilitarian, self-based, and emotive evaluations depends on the sport consumption context. Discussion of theoretical and practical issues is presented and directions for future research are suggested.