associated with sponsor benefits such as purchase intention for a sponsor’s products ( Madrigal, 2000 ; Smith, Graetz, & Westerbeek, 2008 ). Studies have also shown that event emotions influence event-related evaluations and attitudes toward sponsors ( Chakraborti & Roy, 2013 ; Lee, Lee, Lee, & Babin, 2008
T. Bettina Cornwell, Steffen Jahn, Hu Xie, and Wang Suk Suh
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen, and Hyun-Woo Lee
The concurrence of two opposite emotions is one of the most debated questions in contemporary emotion research. Traditional approaches to the study of consumer emotions tend to categorize consumption experiences as either positive or negative ( Oliver, 1993 ). Consumers who are satisfied with their
Yonghwan Chang, Daniel L. Wann, and Yuhei Inoue
significantly influence how spectators experience flow. The opponent-process theory ( Solomon & Corbit, 1974 ) may account for the interactive effects between iTeam ID and emotions on flow. At the core of this theory is the idea that the more an individual is exposed to the same stimuli over time, the more the
Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer
research, the emotional experience of watching sports has been a topic of interest (e.g., Wann & Branscombe, 1992 ). Empirical research has found, for example, that the degree of team identification amplifies both positive and negative emotions ( Wann, Dolan, McGeorge, & Allison, 1994 ). In a recent study
.g., athletic shoes and clothing) may represent a better fit for athlete endorsements in general. However, endorsement campaigns that appeal to emotions or campaign slogans that emphasize feelings (as in the previous example) may engender consumers to rely more on their implicit attitudes as well as their
Joon Sung Lee, Dae Hee Kwak, and Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove
Athlete endorsers’ transgressions pose a dilemma for loyal fans who have established emotional attachments toward the individual. However, little is known regarding how fans maintain their support for the wrongdoer. Drawing on moral psychology and social identity theory, the current study proposes and examines a conceptual model incorporating athlete identification, moral emotions, moral reasoning strategies, and consumer evaluations. By using an actual scandal involving an NFL player (i.e., Ray Rice), the results show that fan identification suppresses the experience of negative moral emotions but facilitates fans’ moral disengagement processes, which enables fans to support the wrongdoer. Moreover, negative moral emotions motivate the moral coupling process. Findings contribute to the sport consumer behavior literature that highly identified fans seem to regulate negative emotions but deliberately select moral disengagement reasoning strategies to maintain their positive stance toward the wrongdoer and associated brands.
Joon-Ho Kang, Richard P. Bagozzi, and Jawang Oh
Although emotion has occasionally been examined as a dependent variable or outcome of physical activity involvement, it rarely has been studied as an antecedent. This study examines the role of emotion in decision-making processes for participant sport consumption. A structural model is proposed to integrate emotions with self-image congruency and attitudes as antecedents of the decision to initiate physical activity in the consumption context. Context effects were investigated by two scenarios: (1) joining a private health club and (2) skiing in an indoor ski resort. A total of 199 persons responded, and structural equation models were examined. The results indicate that emotion mediates the influence of attitudes and self-image congruency on the decision to join the club and resort. The pattern of the relationships among utilitarian, self-based, and emotive evaluations depends on the sport consumption context. Discussion of theoretical and practical issues is presented and directions for future research are suggested.
Choong Hoon Lim, Tywan G. Martin, and Dae Hee Kwak
The current study employs the hedonic paradigm model (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982) to investigate the interceding function of emotions on the relationship between personality (i.e., risk taking) and attitude toward mixed martial arts. This study also examines sport-media (e.g., television) consumption of a nontraditional sport. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the proposed model incorporating risk taking, pleasure, arousal, attitude, and actual consumption behavior. The study found a significant mediation effect of emotion (pleasure and arousal) in the relationship between risk taking and attitude. In addition, attitude showed a direct and significant influence on actual media-consumption behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed, along with future directions for research.
Elizabeth B. Delia
team’s successes as if they are their own ( Cialdini et al., 1976 ), they also have little control over those successes (or failures), nor the day-to-day operations of the entity. Thus, when enduring stressful situations, sport fans may use a variety of emotion-focused coping strategies, such as
Jason Doyle, Kevin Filo, Alana Thomson, and Thilo Kunkel
example, Doyle, Filo, Lock, Funk, and McDonald ( 2016 ) found that supporting a professional Australian Rules Football team helped individuals experience positive emotions, forge relationships with others, derive a sense of meaning and purpose, and experience a sense of accomplishment via the team