The purpose of this study was to explore the directional interpretation process of discrete emotions experienced by table tennis players during competitive matches by adopting a naturalistic qualitative video-assisted approach. Thirty self-confrontation interviews were conducted with 11 national table tennis players (2 or 3 matches per participants). Nine discrete emotions were identified through the inductive analyses of the participants' transcriptions: anger, anxiety, discouragement, disappointment, disgust, joy, serenity, relief, and hope. Inductive analyses revealed the emergence of 4 categories and 13 themes among the 9 discrete emotions: positive direction (increased concentration, increased motivation, increased confidence, positive sensations, and adaptive behaviors), negative direction (decreased concentration, decreased motivation, too confident, decreased confidence, negative sensations, and maladaptive behaviors), neutral direction (take more risk and take less risk), and no perceived influence on own performance. Results are discussed in terms of current research on directional interpretation and emotions in sport.
Guillaume Martinent and Claude Ferrand
Marco Rathschlag and Daniel Memmert
The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991a, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework.
Sarah Deck, Brianna DeSantis, Despina Kouali, and Craig Hall
potential. Imagine being in an important tennis match, a match you should be winning, but your doubles partner is off their game. It is game point, and your partner double faults on their serve; game over. What types of emotions would you feel, and what would you do or say next? For many athletes, if they
Mickaël Campo, Diane Mackie, Stéphane Champely, Marie-Françoise Lacassagne, Julien Pellet, and Benoit Louvet
recently argued for the need to consider the social self in the study of emotions in the context of competitive sport (e.g., Campo, Mellalieu, Ferrand, Martinent, & Rosnet, 2012 ; Tamminen et al., 2016 ). Focusing especially on the consequences of social identity for competitive emotions among athletes
Serge Brand, Markus Gerber, Flora Colledge, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Uwe Pühse, and Sebastian Ludyga
, this is problematic, as the Social Contract Theory ( Cosmides et al., 2005 ) claims, among others, that identifying and remembering faces of individuals breaking social rules is crucial for coping with cheaters, free riders, or defectors. Moreover, functional deficits in emotion processing, and the
Akihito Kamata, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Yuri L. Hanin
The Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model postulates the functional relationship between emotions and optimal performance, and aims to predict the quality of upcoming performance with respect to the pre-performance emotional state of the performer. Several limitations associated with the traditional method of determining the IZOF are outlined and a new probabilistic approach is introduced instead. To reliably determine the boundaries of the IZOF and their associated probabilistic curve thresholds, performance outcomes that vary in quality, as well as the emotional intensity associated with them, are taken into account. Several probabilistic models of varying complexity are presented, along with hypothetical and real data to illustrate the concept. The traditional and the new methods are contrasted in one actual set and two hypothetical sets of data. In all cases the proposed probabilistic method was found to show greater sensitivity and to more accurately represent the data than the traditional method. The development of the method is a first stage toward developing models that take into account the interactive nature and multidimensionality of the emotional construct, as well as the fluctuations in emotional intensity and performance throughout the competition phases (i.e., momentum).
Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan
Precompetition emotions can result in better or worse performance ( Beedie, Terry, & Lane, 2000 ). These are also part of an overall sporting experience for athletes that will influence their motivation and well-being ( Nicholls, Polman, & Levy, 2012 ). It is, therefore, unsurprising that sport
Mark A. Thompson, Adam R. Nicholls, John Toner, John L. Perry, and Rachel Burke
Athlete emotional experiences, both pleasant and unpleasant, are interwoven with coping behaviors and sporting performance ( Hanin, 2007 ; Nicholls, Hemmings, & Clough, 2010 ). Despite this, unpleasant emotions such as anger and anxiety have dominated the sports emotional research landscape
Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu, and Christopher Ring
the direction of causality. Experimental research is needed to determine the influence of teammate behaviors on athlete outcomes. Teammate Behavior, Emotions, Attention, and Performance Prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors could have implications for the recipient’s emotions. For example, being
Christopher R. D. Wagstaff
This study used a single-blind, within-participant, counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to examine the relationship between emotional self-regulation and sport performance. Twenty competitive athletes completed four laboratory-based conditions; familiarization, control, emotion suppression, and nonsuppression. In each condition participants completed a 10-km cycling time trial requiring self-regulation. In the experimental conditions participants watched an upsetting video before performing the cycle task. When participants suppressed their emotional reactions to the video (suppression condition) they completed the cycling task slower, generated lower mean power outputs, and reached a lower maximum heart rate and perceived greater physical exertion than when they were given no self-regulation instructions during the video (nonsuppression condition) and received no video treatment (control condition). The findings suggest that emotional self-regulation resource impairment affects perceived exertion, pacing and sport performance and extends previous research examining the regulation of persistence on physical tasks. The results are discussed in line with relevant psychophysiological theories of self-regulation and fatigue and pertinent potential implications for practice regarding performance and well-being are suggested.