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Neil Chapman, John Whitting, Suzanne Broadbent, Zachary Crowley-McHattan and Rudi Meir

contractions). One such phenomenon is the so-called “residual force enhancement” (RFE) whereby an initial isometric contraction precedes an eccentric contraction, quickly followed by a final isometric contraction (poststretch isometric contraction, PS-ISO). Edman et al 8 introduced the term RFE to describe

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Caitlin Brinkman, Shelby E. Baez, Francesca Genoese and Johanna M. Hoch

intervention for enhancing self-efficacy in sports-related injury rehabilitation programs. Therefore, the purpose of this critically appraised topic is to critically appraise and synthesize the available evidence examining the effectiveness of goal setting–enhanced rehabilitation in improving self-efficacy in

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Mark Holten Mora-Jensen, Pascal Madeleine and Ernst Albin Hansen

bout rate enhancement was reported in healthy individuals ( Hansen, Ebbesen, Dalsgaard, Mora-Jensen, & Rasmussen, 2015 ). Briefly, the phenomenon constitutes a cumulating increase in freely chosen tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation and movement consisting of externally unloaded

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Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas and Keith A. Kaufman

acceptance of unpleasant internal states ( Gardner & Moore, 2004 , 2007 ; Kaufman, Glass, & Arnkoff, 2009 ), which is a central tenet of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness skills appear especially well-matched to sport performance enhancement. As Gordhamer ( 2014 ) contended, “The benefits of

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Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën

are able to predict fall risk in stroke survivors. 9 Therefore, as a first step in the development of an effective fall prevention program, we studied whether PBT enhances gait stability in ambulatory chronic stroke survivors who are prone to falls. We assessed the effect of a perturbation-based gait

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Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris

consultants provide performance enhancement services to their clients, which may include mental skills training that incorporates goal setting, imagery, and relaxation interventions. Contingent on their type of training, a sport psychology practitioner may also work within clinical settings targeting

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Katherine R. Newsham

Performance enhancement is a multibillion dollar industry, with little known about the efficacy or safety of many practices. Many sport governing bodies have banned certain equipment, supplements, and drugs, yet, some athletes use anyway. This use may pose a danger to the individual user, as well as to other participants, and can challenge the integrity of the sport. We must consider how we, as health care professionals, balance personal autonomy, individual safety, and the integrity of sport in fulfilling our social contract.

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Eliane Mauerberg-deCastro

This article uses an anchor metaphor to explain the dynamic interplay between the human body's active uses of nonrigid tools to mediate information about its adjacent environment to enhance postural control. The author used an “anchor” system (e.g., ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor) to test blindfolded adults who performed a restricted-balance task (30 s one-foot standing). Participants were tested while holding the anchors under a variety of weight conditions (125 g, 250 g, 500 g, and 1 kg) and again during a baseline condition (no anchors). When compared with the baseline condition, there was a significant reduction in the amount of body sway across the anchor conditions. The author found that mechanical support provided by the anchor system was secondary to its haptic exploratory function and that an individual can use the anchoring strategy with a dual purpose: for resting and for reorientation after intrinsic disruptions.

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Erin G. Mistretta, Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas, Keith A. Kaufman and Dennis Hoyer

Although mindfulness training for athletes is an area of increasing interest, few studies have focused on the qualitative experiences of athletes in such programs. Before beginning six sessions of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) training, 45 mixed-sport collegiate athletes reported what they hoped and expected to get from the training, and responded afterward to open-ended questions about their experiences. Participants’ responses were coded for themes, with high interrater reliability. Athletes initially hoped to gain psychological benefits in both sport and everyday life, such as relaxation and less stress or anxiety, better emotion regulation, mental toughness, and self-awareness, as well as sport performance improvement. Overall, they found MSPE to be a positive experience and reported many of the same benefits that they expected. Participants also provided constructive feedback and recommendations for future MSPE training. Finally, there was evidence to suggest that athletes’ expectations predicted similar improvements in outcome measures.

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Jamie B. Barker, Marc V. Jones and Iain Greenlees

High levels of self-efficacy have been documented to be associated with optimal levels of sport performance. One technique, which has the potential to foster increased self-efficacy, is hypnosis. Hypnosis is based upon the power of suggestion and, while often shrouded in myth and controversy, has been used in a number of domains including medicine, dentistry, and psychotherapy. In contrast, sport psychology is one domain where the use of hypnosis has yet to be fully explored. The aim of this review is to add to the extant literature and delineate how hypnosis potentially can enhance self-efficacy. By drawing on neodissociation and nonstate theories of hypnosis, a combined theoretical basis is established to explain how hypnosis may be used to influence sport performers’ sources of self-efficacy information. Furthermore, the review examines these theoretical postulations by presenting contemporary research evidence exploring the effects of hypnosis on sport performers’ self-efficacy. The review concludes with future research directions and suggestions for sport psychologists considering the use of hypnosis within their practice.