Human performance enhancement is one of kinesiology’s many vibrant topics for inquiry. Though philosophers in kinesiology departments have offered some contribution to this topic, this paper argues that philosophers could improve their relevance by better engaging the existing scientific research. Rather than simply defending their place at the table, this paper proposes that philosophers build upon existing contributions to the ethics of human enhancement by increasing their scientific literacy. At the same time, this paper argues that certain patterns in philosophical discussions of human enhancement do not connect with scientific researchers. The paper concludes that ultimately philosophers must become more conversant with the language of science if they are going to continue contributing to central questions within the field of kinesiology.
Dimitrios Aivazidis, Fotini Venetsanou, Nikolaos Aggeloussis, Vassilios Gourgoulis and Antonis Kambas
A considerable amount of research has established the vital role of children’s participation in physical activity (PA) for the enhancement of various aspects of health. 1 , 2 Among them, sustaining a healthy body weight seems to be of paramount importance, because childhood obesity has reached
Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower
In her seminal position paper over 30 years ago, Vealey ( 1988 ) defined psychological-skills training (PST) as the techniques and strategies designed to teach or enhance mental skills that facilitate performance and a positive approach to sport competition. While there has been a long
Patsy Tremayne and Debra A. Ballinger
Ballroom dance has resurfaced worldwide as a highly popular competitive sport and might be added to Olympic medal competition for the 2012 London Games. This resurgence presents opportunities for sport psychologists to provide psychological-skills and performance-enhancement training for ballroom dancers at all competitive levels. Few sport psychologists have the personal experience, expertise, or an adequate knowledge base about the competitive-ballroom-dance environment to provide meaningful intervention strategies for participants. This article was developed to provide initial guidance for sport psychology professionals interested in working in this environment. An overview of the competitive-dance and ballroom-dance environment, strategies used by dance couples for enhanced mental preparation before and during dance competitions, and excerpts from an interview with an Australian championship-level couple provide readers insight into performance-enhancement strategies for DanceSport.
Karla A. Henderson
Research reports released almost every day extol the healthful physical and mental benefits of physical activity. Many women, however, fail to participate in physical activities because of reasons that relate to personal, social, and organizational constraints. Understanding what to do to help women enhance their physical activity involvement must be considered by many people. Change in directions that will add quality to women’s lives will not happen without consciously directed effort on the part of individuals, as well as institutions, within society. A basic assumption underlying this paper is that physical activity possesses the components of leisure when it is freely chosen and found enjoyable. Therefore, I propose that change needs to occur within society, among individuals, and by activity providers if opportunities for enjoyable and beneficial physical involvement are to be enhanced for girls and women.
Ming-Yang Cheng, Chung-Ju Huang, Yu-Kai Chang, Dirk Koester, Thomas Schack and Tsung-Min Hung
Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) activity has been related to automaticity during skilled action execution. However, few studies have bridged the causal link between SMR activity and sports performance. This study investigated the effect of SMR neurofeedback training (SMR NFT) on golf putting performance. We hypothesized that preelite golfers would exhibit enhanced putting performance after SMR NFT. Sixteen preelite golfers were recruited and randomly assigned into either an SMR or a control group. Participants were asked to perform putting while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded, both before and after intervention. Our results showed that the SMR group performed more accurately when putting and exhibited greater SMR power than the control group after 8 intervention sessions. This study concludes that SMR NFT is effective for increasing SMR during action preparation and for enhancing golf putting performance. Moreover, greater SMR activity might be an EEG signature of improved attention processing, which induces superior putting performance.
Peter Suedfeld, Drew E. Collier and Bruce D.G. Hartnett
Previous studies using flotation Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique (REST) to enhance motor performance have focused on relatively gross arm and leg movements and have combined the technique with a variety of imaginal practice and relaxation training procedures. This study independently varied REST and an imaginal training and relaxation script to improve accuracy among novice, intermediate, and expert darts players. REST by itself and REST combined with the script were equally effective in enhancing performance (M change about +12%). The imagery script alone and a no-treatment control condition resulted in no change on test-retest measures. The results indicate that in the area of perceptual-motor coordination, REST is not merely a potentiator of other techniques, but a useful and efficient unimodal intervention, which takes a short time and does not require further rehearsal or repetition.
Mária Rendi, Attila Szabo and Tamás Szabó
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of fast- and slow-tempo music on 500-m rowing sprint performances. Twenty-two rowers performed 500-m sprints 3 times: rowing without music, rowing to slow music, and rowing to fast tempo music. Strokes per minute (SPM), time to completion, (TTC), and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Although RPE did not differ between the rowing conditions, TTC was shortest in the fast music condition. Further, shorter TTC was observed in the slow music condition in contrast to the control condition, indicating that slow music also enhanced performance. The strongest treatment effects emerged, however, in the examination of the SPM that were significantly higher during rowing to fast music in comparison with rowing to slow music or no music. These results suggest that fast music acts as an external psyching-up stimulus in brief and strenuous muscle work.
Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas and Keith A. Kaufman
acceptance of unpleasant internal states ( Gardner & Moore, 2004 , 2007 ; Kaufman, Glass, & Arnkoff, 2009 ), which is a central tenet of mindfulness-based interventions. Mindfulness skills appear especially well-matched to sport performance enhancement. As Gordhamer ( 2014 ) contended, “The benefits of
Simon Davies and John D. West
This article familiarizes sport psychologists, counselors, and coaches with the multimodal approach to enhancing the performance of college athletes. The seven modalities of behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relations, and biological functioning are examined. An individualized modality profile for a collegiate soccer player with performance problems is generated. Various applied intervention techniques are suggested to facilitate performance enhancement.