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Nadège Levallet, Norm O’Reilly, Elizabeth Wanless, Michael Naraine, Ethan Alkon and Wade Longmire

level of innovativeness, including the technology and fan community, especially in a collegiate event context ( Yoshida, James, & Cronin, 2013 ). According to these findings, stadium upgrade in the form of Wi-Fi network infrastructure could have positive effects on the fan experience by enhancing the

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J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill

Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.

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Bryan E. Denham

In this essay, the author proposes that, in order to understand how the issue of performance-enhancing-drug use in professional baseball has been defined for mass audiences, scholars need to consider the political and economic interests of both baseball and the media companies that have covered the issue. Where performance-enhancing drugs are concerned, media characterizations have had a significant impact on the formation of public and organizational policy, and the author seeks to demonstrate that portrayals and perceptions of drug use in baseball can be understood through the media product that results from an intersection of normative standards with powerful influences on those standards. Calling out the heavy hitters in a culture of pervasive drug use is unfair to elite performers in that media reports sometimes give the impression that athletes have reached superstar status because they were willing to do what others were not; this is a basic falsehood.

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Rhema D. Fuller, Brennan K. Berg and Michael Hutchinson

Increasingly, sport managers are attempting to use athletics to positively affect their colleges' and universities' prestige. To highlight this contemporary issue, this case study presents an athletic director, Dwight Stanley, who has to give a recommendation on whether his institution should maintain its membership in the NJCAA or pursue membership in another athletic association, namely the NAIA or NCAA DIII.This case study is designed to capture the tension sport managers face as they encounter complex decisions. Accordingly, each membership option is presented with its advantages and disadvantages, as well as its supporters and detractors.Consequently, students will be required to critically assess a variety of factors to determine the institution's most feasible course of action. Given the popularity of careers within intercollegiate athletics, this case study provides an excellent way for students to engage in considering the complexities of such positions.Additionally, though the case study is presented within the context of intercollegiate athletics, the analytical process required to select a course of action is transferable to other segments of the sport industry.

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Coyte G. Cooper

Upon being hired as an assistant wrestling coach at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I program, you have learned that your head coach has given you the task of spearheading the marketing efforts for the upcoming season. With little knowledge in this area, you have decided to apply to the National Wrestling Coaches Association (NWCA) Leadership Academy in August at their annual convention. After being accepted, you have learned that a primary emphasis of the academy is providing coaches with the skill sets necessary to be the CEO of their program. As you attend the different sessions at the academy, there are a variety of different traditional and new media marketing initiatives that are presented as potential strategies to grow programs at the local level. With a goal of increasing attendance and social media followers, you are now presented with the challenge of developing a plan to better market the program moving forward.

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Simon R. Walters, Julia Hallas, Sean Phelps and Erika Ikeda

Even though technology has become a key driver in preparing sports management students for an increasingly globalized industry, it is unclear whether the affordances of these technologies contribute to the transformation of the learning environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a learner-generated video assessment develops students’ critical thinking and engagement with the theoretical concepts taught in an undergraduate second-year Sociology of Sport course. Data were gathered using a qualitative case study approach. Students found the video assessment enjoyable; it promoted critical thinking and engagement with theory. However, students were less interested in technology-based assessment than the need for courses to align learning strategies and assessment methods to the graduate capabilities required to transform their discipline in the workplace. We argue that it is this alignment that will lead to a transformation in the learning environment and quality student engagement, rather than the video technology itself.

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Lisa Pike Masteralexis and Mark A. McDonald

This article presents the results of a pilot study that found significant differences between U.S. and non-U.S. based international sport managers with regard to the educational background, language, and cultural training deemed essential for success in the global sports market. Educational and executive training programs in sport management should recognize sport's movement into a global market and consider providing students in their programs with the competency to compete for positions in sport on a global scale. To do so, sport management programs should offer a global perspective, which encompasses education for recognizing and avoiding potential barriers to effectively conducting sport business in societies where differences exist in language, culture, business, economics, and politics.

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Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James

A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge and Daniel W. Jones

), instructors are faced with the difficulty of merging content delivery with active instructional strategies, while integrating instructional technologies intended to enhance pedagogy ( Georgina & Olson, 2008 ). Difficulties include resigning control of the classroom ( Case, 2007 ), designing complex student

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Adam Cohen and Calvin Nite

synergy between experiential learning and student success. Specifically, educators have suggested that sport management programs implement these experiences in an effort to enhance the students’ potential for success ( Pate & Shonk, 2015 ; Southall, Nagel, LeGrande, & Han, 2003 ). Initially, these