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Bryan E. Denham

In this essay, the author proposes that, in order to understand how the issue of performance-enhancing-drug use in professional baseball has been defined for mass audiences, scholars need to consider the political and economic interests of both baseball and the media companies that have covered the issue. Where performance-enhancing drugs are concerned, media characterizations have had a significant impact on the formation of public and organizational policy, and the author seeks to demonstrate that portrayals and perceptions of drug use in baseball can be understood through the media product that results from an intersection of normative standards with powerful influences on those standards. Calling out the heavy hitters in a culture of pervasive drug use is unfair to elite performers in that media reports sometimes give the impression that athletes have reached superstar status because they were willing to do what others were not; this is a basic falsehood.

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Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James

A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.

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Lisa Pike Masteralexis and Mark A. McDonald

This article presents the results of a pilot study that found significant differences between U.S. and non-U.S. based international sport managers with regard to the educational background, language, and cultural training deemed essential for success in the global sports market. Educational and executive training programs in sport management should recognize sport's movement into a global market and consider providing students in their programs with the competency to compete for positions in sport on a global scale. To do so, sport management programs should offer a global perspective, which encompasses education for recognizing and avoiding potential barriers to effectively conducting sport business in societies where differences exist in language, culture, business, economics, and politics.

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Ari Kim, Moonhoon Choi and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

Residents’ support for hosting the Olympic Games is crucial for a bid to succeed in the Olympic host-city selection process. Because of the vital role of the media in framing public perceptions of Olympic bids, the purpose of this study was to examine media coverage of hosting the Olympic Games during the Olympic host-city bid process. A quantitative content analysis was conducted on newspaper articles about Pyeongchang, Korea. Pyeongchang was a candidate city for 3 consecutive bids for the Winter Olympic Games, and it finally won its latest bid to host the 2018 Games. Six hundred Korean newspaper articles were collected for analysis. The results indicated that positive, nationwide discussions of hosting the Olympic Games were presented during the successful bid. Infrastructure legacy was mentioned frequently and dominantly for both successful and unsuccessful bid periods, whereas the presence of sport-development and sociocultural-legacy themes increased in the latest, successful, bid. In addition, extensive coverage related to celebrity endorsement was found during the successful bid.

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Andrew C. Billings, Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown and Qingru Xu

between second-screen use (often distracting from a primary/consumptive screen) and social TV use (typically enhancing the primary/consumptive screen), a warrant is created for understanding the habits and predilections of the half of the American population that self-identifies as fans of the NFL. More

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Jesse King and Robert Madrigal

’ minds ( Cornwell et al., 2006 ; p. 312). Articulating a sponsorship involves communicating relational and attribute-specific information about how the brand aligns with the property. By doing so, associative pathways are activated in consumers’ memories in such a way as to enhance consumer understanding

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Damien Whitburn, Adam Karg and Paul Turner

; Wang & Zhou, 2015 ). For sport organizations, IMC plays a role in establishing and enhancing relationships to achieve goals including attracting and retaining members, and increasing participation, and has therefore been posited as a solution to problems associated with resource generation in sport

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen

stay in contact with family, friends, or coworkers. SOC1 .893  Because I enjoy the social gatherings. SOC2 .838  To compete with friends, family, or coworkers. SOC3 .723  For bragging rights. SOC4 .699  To give me common ground with other people in my life. SOC5 .697 Enhance (5.108, 1.124) .622 .851

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James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James and Daniel C. Funk

resulted in a competitive, saturated market environment ( Kennedy, Baker, Jordan, & Funk, 2019 ). In response to this, event organizations are pursuing strategies that foster satisfaction among runners to improve retention, increase repeat consumption behaviors, and enhance consumer loyalty ( Baker, Jordan

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Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato, Kevin Filo, James Du and Daniel C. Funk

emergence corresponds to policymakers identifying the promotion of subjective well-being as a key policy target ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010 ) and recognizing spectator sport events as potential mechanisms to enhance well-being ( PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005 ). Literature suggests