Column-editor : Robert D. Kersey
Alan D. Rogol
Most hormonal agents used for nonmedical purposes in athletes have legitimate medical uses. This review introduces each compound by its pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and legitimate medical use and reviews information on its abuse. Human growth hormone is presently available in virtually unlimited quantities due to its production by recombinant DNA technology. Its use in athletes is considered for its muscle-building, fat-depleting properties. Erythropoietin is a kidney hormone that increases red cell mass. It is used for renal dialysis patients to avoid blood transfusions. Its use in athletes is to raise red blood cell mass in an attempt to augment maximal oxygen capacity and the ability to do endurance work. Human chorionic gonadotropin has the biological activity of luteinizing hormone to increase testosterone synthesis and to maintain (partially) testicular volume when exogenous androgens are taken. Clenbuterol is a beta2 adrenergic agonist with muscle-building properties that are seemingly specific to striated muscle; clenbuterol may cause reduction in body fat.
Column-editor : Debra M. Vinci
Brent C. Mangus and Cynthia A. Trowbridge
Valerie J. Wirth and Joe Gieck
Growth hormone is one of the many dangerous and illegal ergogenic aids currently used by athletes. In those who suffer from a growth hormone deficiency, supplementation does produce positive results: Muscle volume increases while adipose tissue volume is significantly reduced. Growth hormone supplementation can also lead to strength increases in the deficient population (2, 6, 13) as well as in the elderly population (16, 18, 25). In healthy young men, growth hormone supplementation has been shown to increase fat-free mass and to decrease fat mass. However, these changes are not accompanied by strength gains (5, 7, 23, 24). This finding, coupled with the numerous side effects associated with the drug, presents a strong case for athletes to abandon its use as an ergogenic aid.
Thorsten Schiffer, Anne Möllinger, Billy Sperlich and Daniel Memmert
The application of kinesio tape (KT) to lower-extremity muscles as an ergogenic aid to improve muscle-strength-related parameters such as jumping is controversial.
To test the hypothesis that the application of KT enhances the jumping performance of healthy uninjured elite female track and field athletes.
A double 1-legged jump test was performed before and after the application of blue K-Active tape without traction on the maximally stretched gastrocnemius, hamstrings, rectus femoris, and iliopsoas muscles according to the generally accepted technique.
18 German elite female track and field athletes (age 21 ± 2 y, height 172 ± 4 cm, body mass 62 ± 5 kg, active time in their sport 13 ± 4 y).
Factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures (ANOVA, Bonferroni) revealed no significant differences in jumping performance between the tests (P > .05, d = 0.26).
These findings suggest that the application of KT has no influence on jumping performance in healthy, uninjured female elite athletes. The authors do not recommend the use of KT for the purpose of improving jump performance.
Sofia I. Lampropoulou and Alexander V. Nowicky
The purported ergogenic actions of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to motor cortex (M1) on force production and perception of effort were investigated using a 10-item numerical rating scale (0–10 NRS) in nonfatiguing bouts of a force-matching task utilizing isometric elbow flexion. Using a crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers received sham, anodal, and cathodal tDCS randomly for 10 min (1.5 mA, 62 μA/cm2) to the left M1 in a double-blind manner. Corticospinal excitability changes were also monitored using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with surface electromyography (sEMG) to monitor both motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and force-EMG from right m. biceps brachii and m. brachioradialis brachii. No significant differences between the verum and sham stimulation were obtained for elbow flexion maximum voluntary force, perception of effort, or sEMG. There were also no significant differences in MEP changes for the types of tDCS, which is consistent with reports that tDCS excitability effects are diminished during ongoing cognitive and motor activities.
Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber
the literature varied between 12–29 °C and immersion times varied between 15–60 min. 8 – 12 Due to these variations, future research should focus on identifying the best parameters for clinicians to utilize in an effort to offer maximal ergogenic effects to endurance athletes. Additionally, the
Hideyuki E Izumi and Masaaki Tsuruike
the injury or structural damage to an injured person. 10. Intervention Use standard accepted techniques to triage patients with medical emergencies. 11. Intervention Ensure compliance with World Anti-Doping Agency guidelines of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical (supplements, ergogenics, herbal remedies