The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N = 30; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition × Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (p < .01). In addition, in-task affect was enhanced by motivational synchronous music when compared with control throughout the trial (p < .01). The experimental conditions did not impact significantly (p > .05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (ηp 2 = .09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.
Costas I. Karageorghis, Denis A. Mouzourides, David-Lee Priest, Tariq A. Sasso, Daley J. Morrish and Carolyn L. Walley
Mary McClung and Dave Collins
In the perpetual quest for better performance, athletes are using an increasingly diverse range of ergogenic aids. Some are permitted; however, this “drug” use is often seen as an ethically questionable behavior. A variety of research suggests that much of the impact of such aids may be due to expectancy—the belief that the substance will aid performance. It would be useful to demonstrate this to athletes considering such usage, especially as a pillar of antidrug education. Accordingly, this investigation used sodium bicarbonate and placebo additives in a double disassociation design, with athletes completing a series of 1,000-m time trials. Results showed that believing one had taken the substance resulted in times almost as fast as those associated with consuming the drug itself. In contrast, taking the drug without knowledge yielded no significant performance increment. Results are discussed against the backdrop of applying expectancy effects in high-performance sport, including dissuading athletes from using illegal aids.
James M. Pivarnik, Christopher P. Connolly, Mallory R. Marshall and Rebecca A. Schlaff
Previous research clearly indicates that exercise training decreases during pregnancy, even among the fittest of women. Despite this, women are typically able to resume their prepregnancy exercise routines soon after delivery, and in some instances, their postpartum performances are better than previously experienced. While anecdotal reports are common, there does not appear to be significant research data to explain this phenomenon. In this review, we explore possible physiologic explanations for heightened postpartum exercise performance, such as pregnancy related changes in aerobic fitness, lactate threshold, flexibility, and musculoskeletal fitness. At this time, limited data do not appear to support an ergogenic role for these variables. Another consideration is a positive change in a woman’s psyche or perceptions toward her athletic abilities as a result of her pregnancy and delivery. While this concept is theoretically possible and may have scientific merit, data are sparse. What is clear is that an increasing number of women are maintaining their physical activity and exercise routines during pregnancy, with many able to return to competition soon after delivery. Well-designed studies are needed to further explore the relationships among physiologic and psychological variables and postpartum exercise performance. Ideally, these studies should be prospective (studying women prepregnancy through the postpartum period) and include diverse samples of women with regard to activity type and fitness level.
Darren G. Candow, Philip D. Chilibeck, Karen E. Chad, Murray J. Chrusch, K. Shawn Davison and Darren G. Burke
The authors previously found that creatine (Cr) combined with 12 weeks of resistance training enhanced muscle strength and endurance and lean tissue mass (LTM) in older men. Their purpose in this study was to assess these variables with cessation of Cr combined with 12 weeks of reduced training (33% lower volume) in a subgroup of these men (n = 8, 73 years old) compared with 5 men (69 years old) who did not receive Cr. Strength (1-repetition maximum [1-RM]), endurance (maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets at 70–80% 1-RM), and LTM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed before and after 12 weeks of Cr cessation combined with reduced-volume training. No changes in strength or LTM occurred. Muscle endurance was significantly reduced (7–21%; p < .05), with the rate of change similar between groups. Withdrawal from Cr had no effect on the rate of strength, endurance, and loss of lean tissue mass with 12 weeks of reduced-volume training.
Iker Leoz-Abaurrea, Mikel Izquierdo, Miriam Gonzalez-Izal and Roberto Aguado-Jiménez
The efficacy of the use of an upper body compression garment (UBCG) as an ergogenic aid to reduce thermoregulatory strain in older adults remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of UBCG on thermoregulatory, cardiorespiratory, and perceptual responses during cycling in a temperate environment (~25 °C, 66% rh) in trained older adults. Twelve cyclists aged 66 ± 2 years performed an intermittent 1-hr cycling trial at 50% of the peak power output followed by 10 min of passive recovery. Participants were provided with either commercially available UBCG or a control garment in a randomized order. UBCG increased thermoregulatory strain during exercise, as indicated by a significantly higher core temperature (38.1 ± 0.3 °C vs. 37.9 ± 0.3 °C; p = .04), body temperature (36.9 ± 0.2 °C vs. 36.7 ± 0.2 °C; p = .01), and thermal sensation (8.0 ± 0.4 vs. 7.5 ± 1.0; p = .02). These results suggest that the use of UBCG in trained older adults does not reduce the thermoregulatory strain during moderate exercise.
Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt
.06.009 10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.06.009 Pesce , C. , Donati , A. , Magrì , L. , Cereatti , L. , Monacelli , C. , Giampietro , M. , & Zelli , A. ( 2004 ). Behavioral and psychological factors related to the use of nutritional ergogenic aids among preadolescents . Pediatric Exercise Science
Yuri Alberto Freire, Geovani de Araújo Dantas de Macêdo, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Ágnes Denise de Lima Bezerra, Ana Paula Trussardi Fayh, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Kevin F. Boreskie, Todd A. Duhamel and Eduardo Caldas Costa
diastolic BP > 89 mm Hg,] 24 ; (2) diabetes mellitus; (3) smoking; (4) pregnancy; (5) consumption of ergogenic agents or medication that could influence the cardiovascular system; and (6) physical limitations in walking or running. The study was conducted from December 2016 to November 2017 in the
Kleverton Krinski, Daniel G. S. Machado, Luciana S. Lirani, Sergio G. DaSilva, Eduardo C. Costa, Sarah J. Hardcastle and Hassan M. Elsangedy
, S.G. ( 2013 ). Psychological, psychophysical, and ergogenic effects of music in swimming . Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14 ( 4 ), 560 – 568 . doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.01.009 Kendzierski , D. , & DeCarlo , K.J. ( 1991 ). Physical activity enjoyment scale: Two validation studies
Alexander T. Latinjak
sports, several researchers have often explained the ergogenic effects of music by its ability to draw attention externally away from the fatiguing task (e.g., Jones, Karageorghis, & Ekkekakis, 2014 ). For instance, Jones et al. showed that provoking dissociative attentional styles (could be mind