This study examined whether the prior consumption of coffee (COF) decreased the ergogenic effect of the subsequent ingestion of anhydrous caffeine (CAF). Thirteen subjects performed 6 rides to exhaustion at 80% VO2max 1.5 h after ingesting combinations of COF, decaffeinated coffee (DECOF), CAF, or placebo. The conditions were DECOF + placebo (A), DECOF + CAF (5 mg/kg) (B), COF (1.1 mg/kg caffeine) + CAF (5 mg/kg) (C), COF + CAF (3 mg/kg) (D), COF + CAF (7 mg/kg) (E), and colored water + CAF (5 mg/kg) (F). Times to exhaustion were significantly greater for all trials with CAF versus placebo (trial A). Exercise times (in minutes) were: 21.7 ± 8.1, 29.0 ± 7.4, 27.8 ± 10.8, 25.1 ± 7.9, 26.4 ± 8.0 and 26.8 ± 8.1 for trials A through F, respectively. In conclusion, the prior consumption of COF did not decrease the ergogenic effect of the subsequent ingestion of anhydrous CAF.
Tom M. McLellan and Doug G. Bell
Athletes use a variety of nutritional ergogenic aids to enhance performance. Most nutritional aids can be categorized as a potential energy source, an anabolic enhancer, a cellular component, or a recovery aid. Studies have consistently shown that carbohydrates consumed immediately before or after exercise enhance performance by increasing glycogen stores and delaying fatigue. Protein and amino acid supplementation may serve an anabolic role by optimizing body composition crucial in strength-related sports. Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenes, may prevent oxidative stress that occurs with intense exercise. Performance during high-intensity exercise, such as sprinting, may be improved with short-term creatine loading, and high-effort exercise lasting 1-7 min may be improved through bicarbonate loading immediately prior to activity. Caffeine dosing before exercise delays fatigue and may enhance performance of high-intensity exercise.
Kristin L. Jonvik, Jan-Willem van Dijk, Joan M.G. Senden, Luc J.C. van Loon and Lex B. Verdijk
Over the past decade, the use of dietary nitrate to enhance performance has received increased attention, with possible ergogenic effects being caused by the reduction of dietary nitrate into nitrite and nitric oxide ( Lundberg et al., 2008 ). Nitric oxide plays a key role in skeletal muscle
Michael S. Bahrke, William P. Morgan and Aaron Stegner
Ginseng is one of the most popular herbal supplements in the world. Although it is used for the treatment and prevention of many ailments, it is also used to increase work efficiency and is purported to increase energy and physical stamina. Athletes use ginseng for its alleged performance-enhancing attributes. However, many studies examining the pharmacological effects of ginseng on physical performance have not employed sound scientific design and methodology. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on published empirical research focusing primarily on the efficacy of ginseng with respect to physical and athletic performance. Despite attempts in recent investigations to improve on the scientific rigor used in examining the ergogenic properties of ginseng, the authors conclude that many of the same methodological shortcomings observed in earlier studies persist. Enhanced physical performance after ginseng administration in well-designed investigations remains to be demonstrated.
The desire to win leads physically active individuals to look for anything to improve performance. Many ergogenic aids are available; however, claims made about many of these products are not appropriate. To evaluate such products, one must consider the physiological sense of the claims, the supportive evidence provided, the research articles quoted, and the legal and health implications of use.
John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte
establishment of dosing thresholds for terbutaline; these dosing thresholds are extremely important given recent evidence of ergogenic effects of supratherapeutic dosages of inhaled terbutaline on sprint and power performance, muscle strength, and muscle hypertrophy, as well as inducing muscle phenotype
Thomas B. Walker and Robert A. Robergs
Rhodiola rosea is an herb purported to possess adaptogenic and ergogenic properties and has recently been the subject of increased interest. The purpose of this article was to review and summarize recent investigations of the potential performance-enhancing properties of Rhodiola rosea. Such studies have generated equivocal results. Several investigations conducted in Eastern Europe have indicated that Rhodiola rosea ingestion may produce such positive effects as improved cognitive function and reduced mental fatigue. Other research from this region has illustrated enhanced endurance exercise performance in both humans and rats. Studies conducted in Western Europe and in North America have indicated that Rhodiola rosea may possess substantial antioxidant properties but have produced mixed results when attempting to demonstrate an ergogenic effect during exercise in humans.
Andrew C. Morris, Ira Jacobs, Tom M. McLellan, Abbey Klugerman, Lawrence C.H. Wang and Jiri Zamecnik
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ginseng extract ingestion on physiological responses to intense exercise. Subjects performed a control ride (CN) on a cycle ergometer, followed by placebo (PL) and ginseng (GS) treatments. Ginseng was ingested as 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days prior to trial GS. Venous blood was sampled for FFA, lactate, and glucose analyses. Due to similar findings for both dose groups, the subjects were considered as one group. Lactate, FFA,
Nathan T. Jenkins, Jennifer L. Trilk, Arpit Singhal, Patrick J. O’Connor and Kirk J. Cureton
The purpose of this experiment was to learn whether low doses of caffeine have ergogenic, perceptual, and metabolic effects during cycling. To determine the effects of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg caffeine on cycling performance, differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (D-RPE), quadriceps pain intensity, and metabolic responses to cycling exercise, 13 cyclists exercised on a stationary ergometer for 15 min at 80% VO2peak, then, after 4 min of active recovery, completed a 15-min performance ride 60 min after ingesting caffeine or placebo. Work done (kJ/kg) during the performance ride was used as a measure of performance. D-RPE, pain ratings, and expired-gas data were obtained every 3 min, and blood lactate concentrations were obtained at 15 and 30 min. Compared with placebo, caffeine doses of 2 and 3 mg/kg increased performance by 4% (95% CI: 1.0–6.8%, p = .02) and 3% (95% CI: –0.4% to 6.8%, p = .077), respectively. These effects were ergogenic, on average, but varied considerably in magnitude among individual cyclists. There were no effects of caffeine on D-RPE or pain throughout the cycling task. Selected metabolic variables were affected by caffeine, consistent with its known actions. The authors conclude that caffeine preparations of 2 and 3 mg/kg enhanced performance, but future work should aim to explain the considerable interindividual variability of the drug’s ergogenic properties.
Costas I. Karageorghis, Denis A. Mouzourides, David-Lee Priest, Tariq A. Sasso, Daley J. Morrish and Carolyn L. Walley
The present study examined the impact of motivational music and oudeterous (neutral in terms of motivational qualities) music on endurance and a range of psychophysical indices during a treadmill walking task. Experimental participants (N = 30; mean age = 20.5 years, SD = 1.0 years) selected a program of either pop or rock tracks from artists identified in an earlier survey. They walked to exhaustion, starting at 75% maximal heart rate reserve, under conditions of motivational synchronous music, oudeterous synchronous music, and a no-music control. Dependent measures included time to exhaustion, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and in-task affect (both recorded at 2-min intervals), and exercise-induced feeling states. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze time to exhaustion data. Two-way repeated measures (Music Condition × Trial Point) ANOVAs were used to analyze in-task measures, whereas a one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-induced feeling states data. Results indicated that endurance was increased in both music conditions and that motivational music had a greater ergogenic effect than did oudeterous music (p < .01). In addition, in-task affect was enhanced by motivational synchronous music when compared with control throughout the trial (p < .01). The experimental conditions did not impact significantly (p > .05) upon RPE or exercise-induced feeling states, although a moderate effect size was recorded for the latter (ηp2 = .09). The present results indicate that motivational synchronous music can elicit an ergogenic effect and enhance in-task affect during an exhaustive endurance task.