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Natália M. Bassan, Tadeu E.A.S. César, Benedito S. Denadai and Camila C. Greco

Purpose:

To analyze the relationship between the responses of isometric peak torque (IPT) and maximal rate of force development (RFDmax) with the changes in stroking parameters in an exhaustive exercise performed in front crawl.

Methods:

Fifteen male swimmers performed, on different days, the following protocols: maximal 400-m trial, strength tests before and after an exhaustive test at 100% of the mean speed obtained during the 400-m test, and the same procedures on day 2.

Results:

The IPT of elbow flexors (79.9 ± 19.4 and 66.7 ± 20.0 N·m) and elbow extensors (95.1 ± 28.0 N·m and 85.8 ± 30.5 N·m) was decreased after the swim test, as was RFDmax (521.8 ± 198.6 and 426.0 ± 229.9 N·m/s; 420.6 ± 168.2 and 384.0 ± 143.5 N·m/s, respectively). Stroke length decreased during the swim test (1.96 ± 0.22 and 1.68 ± 0.29 m/stroke), while stroke rate increased (37.2 ± 3.14 and 41.3 ± 4.32 strokes/min). The propulsive phases increased while the nonpropulsive phases decreased during the test. Significant correlation was found between the changes in IPT and stroke length, stroke rate and recovery (elbow flexors), and entry and catch phase (elbow extensors). In addition, significant correlation was found between the changes in RFDmax of elbow flexors with the changes in pull and recovery phases.

Conclusion:

Changes in swim technique during an exhaustive test can be, at least in part, associated with fatigue of the arm muscles.

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Pirjo Kejonen, Kari Kauranen, Ahti Niinimaa and Heikki Vanharanta

Context:

Balance evaluation and training are typically included in rehabilitation after sport injuries.

Objective:

To evaluate and compare the maximal velocities and accelerations of balancing movements during 2-leg stance with eyes open and closed. The effect of age on the measured values was also evaluated.

Design:

Cross-sectional study.

Participants:

100 healthy, randomly selected subjects (50 men, 50 women; age 31–80 years).

Setting:

Body-movement values were measured with the Mac Reflex motion-analysis system.

Intervention:

Subjects stood barefoot.

Main Outcome Measures:

ANOVAs were used to explain the body movements. The location of measurement, presence or absence of vision, and subjects’ age and gender were used as explanatory variables.

Results:

With eyes closed, all measured body parts had significantly higher maximal velocity and acceleration values than with eyes open. Age seemed to affect the acceleration values.

Conclusion:

Visual information was found to significantly influence movement values. Exercises should be done under various conditions to improve standing balance abilities.

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

experimental setups simultaneously using the PETS and the NIRS of each subject in this study. The arrangement of the optodes when using the NIRS for each subject are also shown in this figure. DAQ = data acquisition; NIRS = near-infrared spectroscopy; PETS = Pressing Evaluation and Training System. Pressing

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Hai-Jung Steffi Shih, Danielle N. Jarvis, Pamela Mikkelsen and Kornelia Kulig

intervention principle. Therefore, the transition phase may be a time point worth focusing on during a jump when considering the evaluation and training of dancers or other athletes. Jarvis et al 13 found greater trunk kinematic coordination variability during late flight right before ground contact, while we

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (protocol 140547). All participants read and signed an informed consent form before the commencement of the study. The evaluations and training sessions were performed from December 2015 to April 2016, at the Physical Education School of the Universidade Federal do Rio

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Talita Molinari, Tainara Steffens, Cristian Roncada, Rodrigo Rodrigues and Caroline P. Dias

between them. It should be noted that the high heterogeneity of the studies regarding the evaluation and training methods used may justify the lack of difference of lower limb muscular strength between the training groups in older adults in the meta-analysis, despite larger effect sizes for the ET group

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Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

out of the study. All participants successfully completed the evaluation and training sessions. Because the results of male and female participants in each task did not differ in any group, we integrated the results of male and female participants and analyzed these integrated data. For accuracy rate

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Elmer A. Castillo and Graig M. Chow

facilitating self-determined motivation. The PP procedure incorporates principles of cognitive-evaluation theory mainly by reinforcing athlete autonomy with regard to performance evaluation and training structure. PCT attempts to develop a holistic understanding of personal meaning-making and how an individual

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Itay Basevitch, Gershon Tenenbaum, Edson Filho, Selen Razon, Nataniel Boiangin and Paul Ward

—a characteristic of more experienced players ( Ward et al., 2013 ). Furthermore, the results indicate that it is crucial to consider the type of options generated rather than the total number of options, as indicated by Raab and Johnson ( 2007 ) when evaluating and training option generation skills. In addition