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Pirjo Kejonen, Kari Kauranen, Ahti Niinimaa and Heikki Vanharanta


Balance evaluation and training are typically included in rehabilitation after sport injuries.


To evaluate and compare the maximal velocities and accelerations of balancing movements during 2-leg stance with eyes open and closed. The effect of age on the measured values was also evaluated.


Cross-sectional study.


100 healthy, randomly selected subjects (50 men, 50 women; age 31–80 years).


Body-movement values were measured with the Mac Reflex motion-analysis system.


Subjects stood barefoot.

Main Outcome Measures:

ANOVAs were used to explain the body movements. The location of measurement, presence or absence of vision, and subjects’ age and gender were used as explanatory variables.


With eyes closed, all measured body parts had significantly higher maximal velocity and acceleration values than with eyes open. Age seemed to affect the acceleration values.


Visual information was found to significantly influence movement values. Exercises should be done under various conditions to improve standing balance abilities.

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Hai-Jung Steffi Shih, Danielle N. Jarvis, Pamela Mikkelsen and Kornelia Kulig

intervention principle. Therefore, the transition phase may be a time point worth focusing on during a jump when considering the evaluation and training of dancers or other athletes. Jarvis et al 13 found greater trunk kinematic coordination variability during late flight right before ground contact, while we

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Takehide Kimura and Ryouta Matsuura

out of the study. All participants successfully completed the evaluation and training sessions. Because the results of male and female participants in each task did not differ in any group, we integrated the results of male and female participants and analyzed these integrated data. For accuracy rate