Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.
Collin A. Webster
Dae Hee Kwak, Joon Sung Lee and Joseph E. Mahan III
Participation in fantasy sports has become one of the most popular forms of interactive online entertainment, attracting more than 32 million players in North America. The purpose of this study was to examine the biasing effects of an advertisement promoting the popular online service. Using the illusion of control theory as a framework, a 2 × 2 between-subjects experiment (N = 156) was conducted to examine the effects of two marketer-controlled variables (i.e., customization level and expert information) on participants’ illusory judgments and their decisions to participate in the advertised service. The results showed that both manipulated features evoked biases in control perceptions. Furthermore, illusory control increases winning expectancy and increased winning expectancy leads to favorable attitude and decision toward the advertised product. Findings suggest that promotional information emphasizing control heuristics and expert knowledge can increase consumers’ beliefs that they can control their outcome, which subsequently influences their decision to participate.
Lee Phillip McGinnis, Brian Glibkowski and Grace Lemmon
Using a grounded theory method of inquiry, this research developed a question-based framework that integrates the WH questions (what, why, when, where, who, and how) with knowledge types (structural, declarative, and procedural) and context (objective and subjective). From this integration, 3 different styles of communication (directional, analytical, and relational) and 6 associated modes of communication (procedure, action, concept, theory, metaphor, and story) emerged. These styles and modes of communication are organized around a circumplex structure, which is further dimensionalized by the WH questions. This framework is referred to as the Question Wheel of Communication, which reflects the circumplex, or circular, ordering of questions.
Derek M.D. Silva, Roy Bower and William Cipolli III
. Spectators, fans, media, and even athletes themselves often evoke the language used by scouts and so-called experts when evaluating athletic potential. The adoption of scouting discourses is particularly evident in the context of sports media, who increasingly evoke the language to produce classification
Bradley D. Hatfield
perspective, is extended to a cascade of neural processes that serve to maintain a fundamental quality of skilled cognitive-motor performance (i.e., the minimization of effort) while performing under conditions of mental stress. In general, expert motor performance is characterized by attenuation of energy
A. Mark Williams and Bradley Fawver
broad area of research. However, we opted for an approach at least grounded in objectivity that considered how often papers had been cited since their publication date, and we solicited thoughts and opinions from a reasonable number of leading experts in the field. We concede that this method is not
Darcy C. Plymire
In the summer and fall of 1993, women from the People’s Republic of China set an astounding number of world records in track and field. Never had so many women performed so brilliantly in such a short period of time. American track and field journalists, however, responded with shock and outrage. Though the women had never tested positive for steroid use, these journalists insisted that the Chinese women could only have succeeded by using steroids. A qualitative discourse analysis of stories written by these journalists revealed that the case against the Chinese was made by privileging the voices of Western European and American athletes, coaches, and sport scientists, and discrediting the Chinese athletes and coaches. The case buttressed the authority of Western track and field experts and athletes whose dominance might otherwise have been shaken by the superior performances of the Chinese. However, the analysis also pointed to a conflict of interest among different factions of the American track and field establishment as scientists, coaches, athletes, and officials all attempted to distance themselves from blame for the prevalence of steroid use by focusing attention on the misdeeds of others.
Mei Du, Mee-Lee Leung, Frank H. Fu and Lynda Ransdell
While job stress in various occupations has gained the attention of experts in both academic research and occupational health care, there is a dearth of information about stress levels among managers in the sport and recreation industry, especially in women and in the Asian culture. Because managers are an important force in delivering sport and recreation services to citizens, the purposes of this study were to examine the job stress and job satisfaction of sport and recreation managers in Hong Kong, and to discern the relationship between stress and job satisfaction. Sport and recreation managers experienced moderate stress (M = 3.63, SD = 0.67) and were satisfied with their jobs (M = 3.79, SD = 0.64). Work relationships (Beta = −.44, p <.001), organizational climate (Beta = −.36, p <.001), home/work balance (Beta = .26, p <.01), and personal responsibility (Beta = .23, p <.01) were important determinants of their job satisfaction. A comprehensive understanding of job stress and job satisfaction is important for minimizing the impact of potential stressors on today’s workforce.
The evaluation of candidates for faculty appointments, tenure and promotion, grants, and scholarship awards is based on review from peers in their discipline. This expert judgment has been the principal mechanism or gold standard of evaluating research for over 100 years ( Belter, 2015 ; Bornmann
Senlin Chen and Alex Garn
pedagogy scholars have done tremendous work to advance the research agenda on learning. Dr. Catherine D. Ennis was one the leading experts in the past 3 decades (1984–2017), who had a monumental impact on learning-related research in physical education. She left behind a wealth of knowledge relevant to