Almost half of the record 98 events being held at the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games were either not held 20 years ago at Lillehammer or have been substantially modified. The Olympics as a global sports event are not stationary but must adapt and evolve in response to changing demands, just as the remarkable athletes who are competing do. While the Winter Olympics program has steadily grown since Chamonix in 1924, the rate of development has greatly accelerated in the last 20 years. Three factors seem to be instrumental. First, the Winter Olympics program has become more gender balanced. Female hockey teams are battling for gold, and this year women will compete in ski jumping for the first time. Most Winter Olympics sports have equal numbers of events for men and women today, although female participation still lags somewhat behind. Second, many traditional events have been modified by sport-governing bodies toward a more “TV friendly” format. Time-trial starts have been replaced by mass or group starts. “Sprint” and team events have been added to spice up traditional sports like cross-country skiing and speed skating. Finally “extreme” sports like half-pipe and ski-cross have crossed over from the X Games to the Olympics, with some arguing that the Olympics need these popular sports more than the X Games sports need the Olympics. All of these changes create new research questions for sport scientists who are also willing to adapt and evolve.
expedition stress positively predicted post-traumatic growth beyond measures of the Big-5, supporting the idea that there is something unique to the stress experience that promotes positive reformulation irrespective of personality. This work highlights the potentially adaptive role of stress in extreme
Dylan Brennan, Aleksandra A. Zecevic, Shannon L. Sibbald and Volker Nolte
athletes feel good, which resulted in self-perceived good health. Brymer’s ( 2011 ) study explored the lived experience of 15 extreme sport participants (30–72 years of age), where the potential outcome of a mistake was an accident or even death. Those participants maintained a strong sense of control
Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong
analysis of emotions in an extreme sport . Frontiers in Psychology, 9 , doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00971 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00971 Hofstede , G. ( 1983 ). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations . International Studies of Management