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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

), which is significantly less than those without physical disabilities ( Disabled Sports USA, 2009 ). Adapted physical activity in today’s context is conceived as “adaptations that could facilitate physical activity across a wide range of individual differences” ( Reid, 2003 , p. 22). Reid ( 2003 ) argued

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Hiroshi Takasaki, Yu Okubo and Shun Okuyama

performance can be associated with the magnitude of the JPS. 4 Therefore, interventions to enhance the JPS would be concerns in the area of athletic training and sports science. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) can be a promising intervention, and several studies have investigated this subject

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Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson, Claudine Sherrill, Ronald French and Heikki Huuhka

The purpose of this research was to develop and test an adapted physical education consultant model to assist regular elementary school classroom teachers to include children with special needs into regular physical education. The consultation model consisted of (a) Level 1, conducting a needs assessment, (b) Level 2, designing/implementing the program, and (c) Level 3, evaluating the program. The model was tested in two communities in Finland using the intensive and the limited consulting approaches. Data collection methods included videotaped observations of teacher and students, interviews, dialogue at interdisciplinary team meetings, and journals. Results are presented as case studies, which describe the process and product over a 2-month period of model implementation. Analysis of data indicate that classroom teachers, paraprofessionals, and students benefited from the consultant model. The adapted physical education consultant model appears to be a viable approach in facilitating the integration of children with special needs.

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Sara Nottingham

Communication between athletic training programs and preceptors is not only an accreditation requirement, but also a mechanism to foster effective clinical education experiences. Communicating regularly with preceptors can provide them with feedback and help demonstrate their value to the athletic training program. Improved communication between academic and clinical education has been identified as a need in athletic training. Ongoing communication can be facilitated in a variety of formal and informal ways, including preceptor newsletters, site visits, questionnaires, meetings, and phone calls. Clinical education coordinators should select methods of communication that meet the needs of their program and preceptors.

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Teddy W. Worrell

Noncompliance to rehabilitation programs presents a significant challenge to clinicians. Noncompliant athletes are at greater risk for re-injury and slower return to activity. There is a paucity of information concerning compliance to sports rehabilitation. This paper advocates the use of behavioral and cognitive techniques to facilitate achievement of rehabilitation goals. Behavioral techniques involve the use of specific short-term functional goals to achieve the long-term goal of return to activity. Cognitive techniques involve the relationship between thoughts and action, that is, if athletes are thinking negatively, they are less compliant to rehabilitation programs. Specific examples of both techniques are presented to the clinician that are proposed to increase rehabilitation goal attainment.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Thomas M. Dodge and Thomas G. Bowman

Context:

Reciprocal learning appears to be occurring in athletic training clinical education. Students and preceptors can learn from one another, particularly if both parties are open to learning from each other.

Objective:

Examine facilitators and barriers to reciprocal learning in the athletic training clinical education setting.

Design:

Exploratory qualitative study.

Setting:

Athletic training programs.

Patients or Other Participants:

Our recruitment, which was based upon data redundancy, included 10 preceptors and 10 athletic training students. The preceptors had an average of 5 ± 3.5 years of experience supervising students. The athletic training student sample consisted of 8 seniors and 2 juniors.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants responded to a series of questions by journaling their thoughts and opinions. Data were collected and stored on QuestionPro, a secure website. Data were analyzed by a general inductive approach. Credibility was established by (1) researcher triangulation, (2) peer review, and (3) member checks.

Results:

The relationship between the preceptor and the student along with reception to reciprocal learning emerged as facilitators, while a lack of confidence on the students’ behalf and time constraints can limit chances for reciprocal learning.

Conclusions:

Reciprocal learning has been identified as being mutually beneficial to the student and preceptor. Our findings highlight that for this type of learning to be successful, there has to be a communal interest in learning and that the use of current clinical cases and students’ current coursework provide benchmarks for discussion and learning.

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Allyson M. Carter, Stephen J. Kinzey, Linda F. Chitwood and Judith L Cole

Context:

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is commonly used before competition to increase range of motion. It is not known how it changes muscle response to rapid length changes.

Objective:

To determine whether PNF alters hamstring muscle activity during response to rapid elongation.

Design:

2 X 2 factorial.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

Twenty-four women; means: 167.27 cm, 58.92 kg, 21.42 y, 18.41% body fat, 21.06 kg/m2 BMI.

intervention:

Measurements before and after either rest or PNF were compared.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average muscle activity immediately after a rapid and unexpected stretch, 3 times pretreatment and posttreatment, averaged into 2 pre-and post- measures.

Results:

PNF caused decreased activity in the biceps femoris during response to a sudden stretch (P = .04). No differences were found in semitendinosus activity (P = .35).

Conclusions:

Decreased muscle activity likely results from acute desensitization of the muscle spindle, which might increase risk of muscle and tendon injury.

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Che-Hsiu Chen, Tsun-Shun Huang, Huei-Ming Chai, Mei-Hwa Jan and Jiu-Jenq Lin

Context:

Recent studies have shown that the static stretch (SS) may adversely affect leg-muscle performance.

Objectives:

The authors examined the short-term effects of 2 stretching exercises on hamstrings muscle before and after exercise.

Design:

Crossover.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

9 healthy, physically active men.

Interventions:

There were 3 protocols in a randomized order with a 7-d interval: nonstretching (CON protocol), hamstrings static stretching (SS) with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF), and SS with kinesio-taping application on the hamstrings.

Main Outcome Measures:

Outcome measures included first-felt and maximum tolerant-felt range of motion (FROM and TROM), maximal knee-flexion peak torque (PT) at 180°/s, and hamstrings muscle stiffness.

Results:

Groups were not different at prestretching in terms of hamstrings flexibility, PT, and muscle stiffness. At poststretching, both stretching protocols showed significant increases in FROM and TROM (P < .05). Stiffer hamstrings muscle and decreased PT were found in both SS+PNF and CON protocols (P < .05). However, there was no significant difference in the SS+Taping protocol (P > .05).

Conclusion:

The stretching protocols improve hamstrings flexibility immediately, but after exercise hamstrings peak torque is diminished in the SS+PNF but not in the SS+Taping group. This means that SS+Taping can prevent negative results from exercise, which may prevent muscle injury.

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Viviene A. Temple, P. Lynn Purves, Robyn Misovic, Coral J. Lewis and Carrie DeBoer

Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3–4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: “riders” and “not there yet.” Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children “not there yet.”