resources (e.g., life experiences, emotion- and problem-focused coping styles, and social support). The stressful nature of injury and the availability of resources help facilitate SIRG through four mechanisms: meta-cognition, positive reappraisal, positive emotions, and facilitative responses. Specifically
Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss
Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap
withdrawing, older people with sight loss express a desire and motivation for continued engagement in personally meaningful activities ( Stevens-Ratchford & Krause, 2004 ), yet minimal research has reported on the nature of such activities or the barriers and facilitators towards participation. We aimed to
Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith
In the presence of anxiety, threatening stimuli are allocated greater processing priority by high-trait-anxious individuals (Mathews, 1993). As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) might best account for individual differences, this investigation aimed to establish whether or not such processing priority is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators performed a modified Stroop test (Stroop, 1935) by reacting to neutral, positive, and negative word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4,80) = 3.95, p < .05, was evident, with facilitators exhibiting a processing bias toward positive words in positive mood conditions. The data support the contention that anxiety interpretation is an important distinguishing variable in accounting for processing bias and support the potential contribution of cognitive restructuring practices to athletic performance.
Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith
Beck’s (1976) theoretical account of emotional vulnerability predicts that individuals who are vulnerable to anxiety will exhibit a cognitive processing bias for the threatening interpretation of ambiguous information. As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) may best account for individual differences, the aim of this study was to establish whether such processing bias is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators underwent a modified Stroop test by reacting to neutral and ambiguous word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4, 60) = 3.02, p < .05, was evident, with the reaction time of facilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the positive mood condition and debilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the negative mood condition. The findings illustrate the important role that anxiety interpretation plays in the mechanism involved in the processing of ambiguous information.
Afroditi Stathi, Holly Gilbert, Kenneth R. Fox, Jo Coulson, Mark Davis and Janice L. Thompson
This mixed-methods study investigated personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors salient to decisions about being active in neighborhoods of different levels of deprivation.
Twenty-five participants age 70 years and older (10 women) with diverse physical activity levels provided data on their weekly activity patterns (using accelerometry) and their perceived barriers to exercise (questionnaire). They also participated in semistructured individual interviews exploring the barriers and facilitators influencing neighborhood activity.
Functional limitations, lack of intrinsic motivation, and not having an activity companion were the highest impact barriers. Walkable access to amenities, positive physical activity perceptions, and existing habit of being active were the highest impact facilitators.
The perceived quality and accessibility of the built and natural environments influence neighborhood activity in older adults. However, this relationship might be altered through the influence of personal and interpersonal determinants such as maintenance of good health and functional ability and supportive social networks.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron and Mark R. Beauchamp
The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Cassandra J. de Lacy-Vawdon, Ruth Klein, Joanna Schwarzman, Genevieve Nolan, Renee de Silva, David Menzies and Ben J. Smith
, employment, technology, economics and others, to facilitate the maintenance of mental and physical capacities, and prevent functional loss in older age ( Foster & Walker, 2015 ). Whilst physical activity (PA) is well-known for its impact on chronic disease prevention among older adults, it has also been
Munira Abdulwasi, Meena Bhardwaj, Yuka Nakamura, Maha Zawi, Jennifer Price, Paula Harvey and Ananya Tina Banerjee
models assert that there are multiple levels of facilitators that impact an individual’s ability to engage in physical activity, such as interpersonal, intrapersonal, organizational, physical environment, and policy factors. 21 Intrapersonal facilitators include an individual’s biological, behavioral
Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis
This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.
With the emergence of sport imagery training programs, sport psychologists need to understand the various conditions that have been found to facilitate imagery practice. This manuscript focuses on these conditions including vividness and controllability, practice, attitude and expectation, previous experience, relaxed attention, and internal versus external imagery. The summary synthesizes key points, advocating that these points be stressed in future sport imagery research and programs.