In a sample of 291 adolescents (mean age 13 yr), seven psychosocial factors, including family support, were examined in relation to accelerometry-derived physical activity (PA) measured after school and during the weekend. Gender-specific stepwise linear regression analyses determined which combinations of factors explained the variance in nonschool moderate to vigorous PA and nonschool total PA after adjusting for % BF, age, and maturity (p ≤ 0.05). Being praised by a family member and % BF explained 13% of the variance in female nonschool MVPA, while being praised and maturity explained 13% of the variance in nonschool total PA. Having a family member watch him participate, % BF, and age explained 11.5% of the variance in male nonschool MVPA, while having a family member participate with him explained 6.4% of the variance in nonschool total PA. Despite adolescents’ growing independence, family support continues to influence PA levels.
Joanna L. Morrissey, Phyllis J. Wenthe, Elena M. Letuchy, Steven M. Levy and Kathleen F. Janz
Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum and Gang He
Hong Kong’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first evidence-based synthesis of various indicators related to individual behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels, settings and sources of influence, and strategies and investments in Hong Kong.
Following a standardized protocol, currently best available data for Hong Kong youth were collated and evaluated by an expert consensus panel on 9 indicators (5 activity behaviors and 4 influences on these behaviors).
Less than half of the children and youth met the recommended PA level. As a result, a D grade was given for Overall PA levels. Organized Sport Participation and Active Transportation received grades of C- and B, respectively. Sedentary Behaviors and School scored a C grade. Community and the Built Environment scored a grade of B. Family Influence received as low a score as Overall PA (D). Active Play and Government were not graded due to incomplete data.
PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high for children and youth in Hong Kong. Promising policies exist in schools and features of community and the built environment are favorable. Increasing family support should be emphasized for future PA promotion.
Stuart J.H. Biddle, Sarah H. Whitehead, Toni M. O’Donovan and Mary E. Nevill
Many adolescent girls have low levels of physical activity and participation declines with age. This review identifies recent correlates of physical activity in adolescent girls.
Systematic review of papers published 1999 to mid-2003. Papers (k = 51) reporting a measure of physical activity and at least one potential correlate of physical activity in adolescent girls were analyzed.
Demographics related to physical activity were female gender (–), non-white ethnicity (–), age (–), and socio-economic status (+). Psychological correlates positively associated with physical activity were enjoyment, perceived competence, self-efficacy, and physical self-perceptions. Behavioral correlates showed that smoking was associated with lower and organized sport involvement with greater activity. Physical activity was associated with parental and family support but we found no consistent trends for environmental variables. Effects were small-to-moderate.
Modifiable correlates for adolescent girls clustered around “positive psychology,” organized sport involvement, and the family.
Phyllis J. Wenthe, Kathleen F. Janz and Stephen M. Levy
This study investigated the relationship between predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors conceptualized within the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model (YPAP) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescent males and females. Specifically, self-efficacy to overcome barriers, enjoyment of physical activity; family support, peer support, perceived school climate, neighborhood safety and access to physical activity were examined. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A) and the Actigraph 7164 were used to obtain three different measures of MVPA in 205 adolescents (102 males, 103 females). Family support emerged as the most significant and consistent factor associated with the MVPA of both adolescent males and females. This relationship was noted even when different methods of measuring MVPA were employed. These findings should increase the confidence of public health officials that family support has the potential to positively alter the physical activity behavior of adolescents.
Albert V. Carron, Heather A. Hausenblas and Diane Mack
Using meta-analysis, the impact of a number of manifestations of social influence (important others, family, class leaders, coexercisers, social cohesion, and task cohesion) on exercise behaviors (adherence and compliance), cognitions (intentions and efficacy), and affect (satisfaction and attitude) was examined. The results showed that social influence generally has a small to moderate positive effect (i.e., effect size [ES] from .20 to .50). However, four moderate to large effect sizes (i.e., ES from .50 to .80) were found: family support and attitudes about exercise, task cohesion and adherence behavior, important others and attitudes about exercise, and family support and compliance behavior.
Han Chen and Jun Dai
Using the social cognitive theory, this study aims to examine how gender moderates the direct and indirect relationships of various sources of social support on Chinese adolescents’ physical activity (PA).
A cross-sectional study was conducted. The final data includes 396 students (55.8% are boys) who were randomly selected from 2 middle schools and 4 high schools in Fuzhou city located in southeast China. Family support, peer support, and self-efficacy (SE) were measured using validated questionnaires. Participants’ PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. A bootstrapping method was used to determine and compare the direct and indirect effects of social support on PA across genders.
Peer support had no direct effect on PA; rather, peer support indirectly influenced PA through SE. Gender did not moderate this mediating effect. In addition, family support had neither a direct nor an indirect effect on PA via SE, and gender did not moderate these effects.
Findings suggest that peer support played a more important role than family support on study participants’ PA indirectly through SE. SE also has a similar indirect effect across genders.
Bradley M. Appelhans and Hong Li
This study tested associations of organized sports participation and unstructured active play with overall moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in low-income children and examined factors associated with participation frequency.
Research staff visited 88 low-income Chicago households with children ages 6–13 years. MVPA was assessed through 7-day accelerometry. Researchers documented the home availability of physical activity equipment. Caregivers reported on child participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, family support for physical activity, perceived neighborhood safety, and access to neighborhood physical activity venues.
Despite similar participation in organized sports and unstructured active play, boys accumulated more MVPA than girls. MVPA was predicted by an interaction between gender and unstructured active play. Boys accumulated 23–45 additional minutes of weekday MVPA and 53–62 additional minutes of weekend MVPA through unstructured active play, with no such associations in girls. Higher reported neighborhood safety and family support for physical activity were associated with engagement in unstructured active play for both genders, and with participation in organized sports for girls.
Physical activity interventions for low-income, urban children should emphasize unstructured active play, particularly in boys. Fostering family support for physical activity and safe play environments may be critical intervention components.
Gavin R. McCormack, Christine M. Friedenreich, Billie Giles-Corti, Patricia K. Doyle-Baker and Alan Shiell
The built and social environments may contribute to physical activity motivations and behavior. We examined the extent to which the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) mediated the association between neighborhood walkability and walking.
Two random cross-sectional samples (n = 4422 adults) completed telephone interviews capturing walking-related TPB variables (perceived behavioral control (PBC), attitudes, subjective norm, intention). Of those, 2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire capturing walkability, social support (friends, family, dog ownership), and neighborhood-based transportation (NTW) and recreational walking (NRW). The likelihood of undertaking 1) any vs. none and 2) sufficient vs. insufficient levels (≥150 vs. <150 minutes/week) of NTW and NWR, in relation to walkability, social support, and TPB was estimated.
Any and sufficient NTW were associated with access to services, connectivity, residential density, not owning a dog (any NTW only), and friend and family support. Any and sufficient NRW were associated with neighborhood aesthetics (any NRW only), dog ownership, and friend and family support. PBC partially mediated the association between access to services and NTW (any and sufficient), while experiential attitudes partially mediated the association between neighborhood aesthetics and any NRW.
Interventions that increase positive perceptions of the built environment may motivate adults to undertake more walking.
Susan C. Duncan, Terry E. Duncan, Lisa A. Strycker and Nigel R. Chaumeton
Typical studies of youth physical activity ignore the dependence among family members, examining only individual levels of data rather than individual and family levels. The current study examined physical activity among siblings (mean age = 12.2 years), using hierarchical linear modeling. Individual-and family-level covariates of physical activity were included in the model. Data from 930 siblings nested within 371 families were analyzed in a four-level multilevel design. Results indicated that siblings were similar in their levels of physical activity, and that levels of physical activity varied across families. At the individual level, age was a significant predictor of physical activity. At the family level, higher levels of family support were related to higher levels of sibling physical activity, as were single-parent status and higher income. Perceptions of neighborhood opportunities and observed neighborhood physical activity facilities were negatively related to family levels of physical activity.
Dan J. Graham, Katherine W. Bauer, Sarah Friend, Daheia J. Barr-Anderson and Dianne Nuemark-Sztainer
Physical activity (PA) declines sharply and rapidly during adolescence, especially among girls, posing a risk for inactivity and obesity in adulthood. This study identified personal, behavioral, and socioenvironmental correlates of concurrent and 6-month longitudinal PA among adolescent girls.
Data were gathered from 356 adolescent girls (mean age 15.8 ± 1.2 years; > 75% racial/ethnic minorities) in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area in 2007–2009. Linear regression analyses controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and school were conducted predicting baseline and follow-up levels of total PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) assessed via 3-Day Physical Activity Recall. Models were fit for each correlate individually and for all correlates together, mutually adjusted.
For concurrent PA, significant positive predictors when adjusting for the influence of all other variables included self-efficacy, support from friends and teachers, and friends’ PA. Total screen time and distance from school to PA resources related inversely to concurrent PA. In mutually-adjusted models, 6-month PA was positively related to self-worth, family support, and parent PA and inversely related to total screen time.
PA interventions with adolescent girls might be enhanced by involving adolescents’ social networks and also by helping adolescents feel better about their self-worth and athletic abilities.