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Pamela Fenning, Marianela Parraga, Vinita Bhojwani, Amie Meyer, Michael Molitor, Mary Malloy, Larry Labiak, Irene Taube and Father Joe Mulcrone

The purpose was to evaluate perceived sportsmanship behaviors and learning outcomes of a one-day integrated basketball clinic and tournament, titled the Sports for Mutual Admiration and Respect Among Teens (SMART) Games, cooperatively planned and implemented by over 17 agencies. Participants were 55 adolescents (28 without disabilities and 27 with hearing, cognitive/emotional, mobility, or visual disabilities), ages 14 to 18, M age = 15.5. Tournament play was in four divisions, one for each disability, with rules and skills modified accordingly. Quantitative and qualitative data collected afterwards revealed only one significant difference between genders and no significant differences between participants with and without disabilities on the other sportsmanship behaviors (competition, help with skill, equity, fair, effort). Except for ratings on perceived help with skills, sportsmanship ratings were relatively high, ranging from 3.07 to 3.56 on a 4-point scale. Perceived learning outcomes pertained to increased understanding of individual differences and sportsmanship.

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Kelly L. Holzberger, Kim Keeley and Martin Donahue

episode, the athlete reported experiencing blurred vision and lightheadedness. Also, at this time, the athlete informed the athletic trainer that his father had heart disease and passed away in his sleep at the age of 57. Based on these two episodes and family history, the patient was referred to the team

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Mayrena I. Hernandez, Kevin M. Biese, Dan A. Schaefer, Eric G. Post, David R. Bell and M. Alison Brooks

the risk of injury in sports compared with children. Mothers are more concerned about injury when compared with fathers. 16 This is consistent with previous literature focusing on concussions, in which parents are more concerned than children and mothers are more concerned than fathers about

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

.1111/1464-0597.00062 21. National Athletic Trainers’ Association . Membership statistics . http://members.nata.org/members1/documents/membstats/index.cfm . Updated 2018 . Accessed September 21, 2018. 29398433 22. Goncalves G , Sousa C , Santos J , Silva T , Korabik K . Portuguese mothers and fathers

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Shannon David and Mary Larson

. The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons . J Adv Nurs . 1986 ; 11 ( 3 ); 255 – 263 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.1986.tb01246.x 3636353 10.1111/j.1365-2648.1986.tb01246.x 34. Ngu L , Florsheim P . The development of relational competence among young high-risk fathers across the

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle and Chantel Hunter

for support both as they pursue their careers in MLB, but also as they attempt to make time for their roles as husbands, fathers, etc. In our sample, a majority of our participants had spouses who did not work, allowing them to be the domestic managers, which likely alleviated some of the stress and

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Jihoun An and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher’s journal. Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).

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Jeffrey J. Martin and Carol A. Mushett

The purpose of this investigation was to describe social support mechanisms of swimmers with disabilities and examine relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and athletic satisfaction. Results indicated that athletes felt satisfied with the social support they received. Mothers and friends provided primary support in a variety of areas requiring non-sport-related knowledge. Additionally, there were important secondary sources of support in areas requiring sport-specific knowledge. Coaches were primary sources of support in areas that required sport expertise. Fathers were also important sources of secondary support in areas that required both sport expertise and nonsport expertise. Correlational results suggested that athletes who were supported by being listened to and by being challenged to become better athletes and people also reported strong self-efficacy.

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Jim Taylor

This response to a case study focuses on how I would approach the development of an intervention program for Jenny. Such a program begins with extensive psychological and physical assessments. The psychological assessment would be garnered primarily through observation of Jenny at practice and in games, extensive interviewing of the athlete, and, with her permission, interviewing her coaches and parents. The physical assessment would involve testing of Jenny’s injured knee as well as a complete conditioning evaluation. The key issues that emerged as part of the conceptualization of Jenny’s Performance Dysfunction include: (a) family issues, including the internalizations of a perfectionistic father and a needy mother; (b) unresolved feelings related to her parents’ divorce; and (c) emotional immaturity that expresses itself in fear of failure, inappropriate emotions, and avoidance from conflict. The intervention would take a multimodal approach that involves: (a) insight; (b) emotional exploration; (c) behavioral change; and (d) mental skills. The program would conclude with a post-intervention assessment that would be comprised of objective evaluation of Jenny’s physical condition, coach feedback about Jenny’s behavior, and, finally, Jenny’s own assessment of changes that have occurred due to the intervention.

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Howard L. Nixon II

This paper addresses how parents encourage or discourage sports involvement by their visually impaired offspring, the types of sports involvement these children pursue, and the effects of parental encouragement on sports involvement. It analyzes new evidence from a study of parental adjustment to a visually impaired child. The evidence was derived mainly from open-ended, in-depth interviews of parents of 18 partially sighted and totally blind children who had attended public school. There were 15 mothers and 9 fathers in the 16 families who were interviewed, and 2 of the families had 2 visually impaired children. Additional data were provided through interviews with 14 professionals and volunteers from various fields who had sports-related experiences or observations of visually impaired children and their families. Four major forms of parental encouragement and discouragement were identified: strong encouragers, weak encouragers, tolerators, and discouragers. The predominance of the latter three helped explain the dominant patterns of limited involvement in sport by visually impaired children. Implications of these findings for mainstreaming and appropriate integration also are considered.