Alberto Cei and John H. Salmela
Vladislav A. Bespomoshchnov and Jeffrey G. Caron
Anatoly Tarasov was the architect of the Russian ice hockey system—one of the most storied program’s in the history of International ice hockey. As a head coach, he led his team to 3 Olympic gold medals, 9 World Championships, and 18 National Championships. He was also the first European inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in Canada. Given all that he accomplished, it is surprising that relatively little is known about Tarasov outside of Russia. The purpose of this paper is to introduce coach Tarasov and, through an analysis of his own writings and what others have written about him, shed some light on his coaching methods that we believe comprise his coaching philosophy. As we will demonstrate, Tarasov’s coaching methods, which would have been viewed as unusual at the time—particularly by ice hockey coaches in North America—are now widely supported in the coaching science literature and practiced by some of the world’s most regarded coaches. Rooted in Tarasov’s coaching methods, we also provide a number of “best practices” for ice hockey coaches, which we believe might also be applicable to coaches working in other contexts.
Pamela Fenning, Marianela Parraga, Vinita Bhojwani, Amie Meyer, Michael Molitor, Mary Malloy, Larry Labiak, Irene Taube and Father Joe Mulcrone
The purpose was to evaluate perceived sportsmanship behaviors and learning outcomes of a one-day integrated basketball clinic and tournament, titled the Sports for Mutual Admiration and Respect Among Teens (SMART) Games, cooperatively planned and implemented by over 17 agencies. Participants were 55 adolescents (28 without disabilities and 27 with hearing, cognitive/emotional, mobility, or visual disabilities), ages 14 to 18, M age = 15.5. Tournament play was in four divisions, one for each disability, with rules and skills modified accordingly. Quantitative and qualitative data collected afterwards revealed only one significant difference between genders and no significant differences between participants with and without disabilities on the other sportsmanship behaviors (competition, help with skill, equity, fair, effort). Except for ratings on perceived help with skills, sportsmanship ratings were relatively high, ranging from 3.07 to 3.56 on a 4-point scale. Perceived learning outcomes pertained to increased understanding of individual differences and sportsmanship.
Olivier N. Schmid, Malayna Bernstein, Vanessa R. Shannon, Catherine Rishell and Catherine Griffith
Tennis has been identified as an ideal context for examining the dynamics of parenting and coaching relationships (Gould et al., 2008) but coaching dual-role relationships remain unexplored in this sport and related investigations only included volunteer coaches (Jowett, 2008; Harwood & Knight, 2012). An open-ended interview approach was used to examine how female tennis players previously coached by their fathers (professional coaches) before competing in college tennis perceived their experiences with the dual-role relationship and the coaching transition. A holistic narrative approach was used to reconstruct retrospectively the stories of the participants’ experiences and understand their development. Despite some beneficial aspects, a majority of participants emphasized their challenging experiences with regards to their needs to manage blurred boundaries, receive paternal approval, and endure their fathers’ controlling and abusive behaviors. Coaching transitions helped normalize father-daughter relationships and provided insight into the respective needs that were fulfilled through the dual-role relationships.
Sally A. White
The purpose of this study was to examine the combined effects of task- and ego-orientation on adolescents’ perceptions of the parent-initiated motivational climate and competitive trait anxiety. Participants were 279 male and female adolescents (mean age = 14.41 years) who competed on organized sport teams. Based on a mean split on the two TEOSQ subscales, four goal orientation profile groups were created: high-task/high-ego, high-task/low-ego, high-ego/low-task, and low-task/low-ego. MANOVA results indicated that the high-task/low-ego group perceived that both their mother and father endorsed a learning and enjoyment motivational climate. In contrast, the high-ego/low-task group thought their mother and father valued a climate where success was coupled with low effort. In this group, fathers were perceived to cause worry about making mistakes. This group experienced the highest levels of competitive trait anxiety. For the high-task/high-ego group it was found that fathers emphasized a climate where success was linked to low levels of exerted effort and mothers were perceived to cause worry about making mistakes. However, the high-task/high-ego group also believed that both parents still valued learning and enjoyment in the development of physical skills. Lastly, individuals in the low-task/low-ego group perceived mothers to make them afraid of making mistakes in the learning of skills.
Jeanne Adèle Kentel and David Ramsankar
Coaches are in a strong position to lay the groundwork for positive outcomes and attitudes in sports. In this paper we attempt to uncover ways in which coaching and sport pedagogy might be informed through our perspectives as parents of two young girls. As a father and a mother from two different families we examine the complexities of competition among the young. We begin to theorize about the ways young people might contribute to the discourse about competition in sport and ways coaches, coach educators and researchers might respond to enact potential reform.
This article presents and examines a number of critical issues facing male psychology consultants when working with female athletes. It focuses on potential problems associated with cross-sex consulting in sport psychology, including such topics as developing and maintaining a professional relationship, ethics, range of services provided, and delivery of services. Ethical issues of cross-sex consulting are discussed and include sexual relationships, dependency, bonding, and the father figure syndrome. A brief section of this article provides insights on how to be effective in cross-sex consulting. Finally, a number of practical guidelines are provided on how males can become effective sport psychology consultants to female athletes.
Deborah L. Feltz, Cathy D. Lirgg and Richard R. Albrecht
Eighteen elite young distance runners were followed over a 5-year period and examined on their perceptions of parental involvement, commitment, anxiety, and sources of worry as these variables pertained to their competitive running. Results showed that the runners received good parental support and possessed a relatively high level of commitment to running, but that both parental involvement and commitment declined over the 5 years. Fathers were seen as being more involved in their children’s running than mothers were. Also, females were somewhat more committed to running than males were. Males and females exhibited similar anxiety scores and these scores did not increase significantly over time. There was no evidence that these runners suffered excessive anxiety.
Kacey C. Neely and Nicholas L. Holt
The overall purpose of this study was to examine parents’ perspectives on the benefits of sport participation for their young children. Specifically, this study addressed two research questions: (1) What benefits do parents perceive their children gain through participation in organized youth sport programs? (2) How do parents think their children acquire these benefits? Twenty-two parents (12 mothers, 10 fathers) of children aged 5-8 years participated in individual semistructured interviews. Data were subjected to qualitative analysis techniques based on the interpretive description methodology. Parents reported their children gained a range of personal, social, and physical benefits from participating in sport because it allowed them to explore their abilities and build positive self-perceptions. Parents indicated they believed children acquired benefits when coaches created a mastery-oriented motivational climate that facilitated exploration. Crucially, parents appeared to play the most important role in their children’s acquisition of benefits by seizing “teachable moments” from sport and reinforcing certain principles in the home environment.
Jack Martin and David Cox
A recently developed social psychological and biographical approach to the study of lives, life positioning analysis (LPA), is applied to the early life experiences of Canadian basketball player Steve Nash for the purpose of identifying sources of his athletic creativity and work ethic. The analysis focuses on Nash’s childhood and adolescence, especially his interactions with his father, brother, coaches, friends, and teammates. The interpretations, results, and conclusions offered describe specific types of interaction with these other individuals as likely influences on the development of important psychological aspects of the team oriented creativity that came to characterize Nash’s unique athletic style. The article concludes with a brief description of the unique yields and possible contributions of this type of biographical case study as a methodological approach in sport psychology.