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Cody D. Neshteruk, Deborah J. Jones, Asheley Skinner, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate and Dianne S. Ward

practices, which are specific behaviors parents use to support or limit children’s physical activity. 4 – 6 However, most research has focused on mothers, with little empirical attention devoted to the role of fathers. 7 , 8 Although limited research has examined father involvement in children’s lifestyle

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Kyra Hamilton and Katherine M. White

Background:

Parents are at risk for physical inactivity; however, few studies have designed physical activity (PA) interventions specifically applied to individuals with young children. To ensure the effectiveness of interventions, it may be useful to first elicit the needs from the target population and incorporate salient strategies identified to the design and delivery of a resultant intervention. We aimed to explore strategies for what to include in and how to best deliver a program designed to increase parental PA.

Methods:

Twelve parents (6 mothers, 6 fathers) of children younger than 5 years participated in focus group discussions exploring strategies for an intervention program designed to increase parental PA.

Results:

A range of themes such as Focus on the Children and Flexible Life/Family Plans imbedded in strategies such as persuasion and information, problem-solving, skill building, and environmental approaches were identified. In addition, a range of strategies for how to best deliver a parental PA intervention evidenced in emerging themes such as Diverse and Brief and Individualized Approach was discussed.

Conclusions:

Future research should continue to adopt a ground up, community-based approach to the development and implementation of interventions for this at-risk group to ensure sustained involvement in regular PA.

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Stephanie Schoeppe, Markus Röbl, Sebastian Liersch, Christian Krauth and Ulla Walter

Purpose:

To investigate associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity, and to explore differences by child gender.

Method:

The sample comprised 737 year five students (mean age: 11.0 ± 0.6 years, 52% male) recruited through the Fit for Pisa Project which was conducted in 2008 at 6 secondary schools in Goettingen, Germany. Maternal and paternal sport participation were assessed through child reports of mothers’ and fathers’ weekly participation in sport. Children’s leisure-time physical activity was measured as minutes/week that children engaged in organized and nonorganized sport. Multiple linear regression was used to assess associations between maternal and paternal sport participation, and children’s leisure-time physical activity.

Results:

Both maternal and paternal sport participation were positively associated with children’s leisure-time physical activity (maternal: b = 34.20, p < .001; paternal: b = 25.32, p < .05). When stratifying analyses by child gender, maternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in girls (b = 60.64, p < .001). In contrast, paternal sport participation remained significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity in boys (b = 43.88, p < .01).

Conclusion:

Both maternal and paternal modeling positively influence children’s leisure-time physical activity.

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Kyra Hamilton, Stephen Cox and Katherine M. White

Parents are at risk for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity (PA) is scarce. We integrated self-determined motivation, planning, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to better understand parental PA. Parents (252 mothers, 206 fathers) completed a main questionnaire assessing measures underpinning these constructs and a 1-week follow-up of PA behavior to examine whether self-determined motivation indirectly influenced intention via the TPB variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and intention indirectly influenced behavior via planning. We found self-determined motivation on intention was fully mediated by the TPB variables and intention on behavior was partially mediated by the planning variables. In addition, slight differences in the model’s paths between the sexes were revealed. The results illustrate the range of important determinants of parental PA and provide support for the integrated model in explaining PA decision making as well as the importance of examining sex differences.

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Diego G.D. Christofaro, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Kyle R. Lynch, William R. Tebar, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Fernanda G. Tebar, Gregore I. Mielke and Xuemei Sui

) were evaluated. All classes were invited to participate in this study. Parents or guardians received a questionnaire about their lifestyle habits (PA and SBs) and education level. In the end, 1202 mothers and 871 fathers answered the questions. Parents or guardians of the adolescents signed a consent

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Pamela Fenning, Marianela Parraga, Vinita Bhojwani, Amie Meyer, Michael Molitor, Mary Malloy, Larry Labiak, Irene Taube and Father Joe Mulcrone

The purpose was to evaluate perceived sportsmanship behaviors and learning outcomes of a one-day integrated basketball clinic and tournament, titled the Sports for Mutual Admiration and Respect Among Teens (SMART) Games, cooperatively planned and implemented by over 17 agencies. Participants were 55 adolescents (28 without disabilities and 27 with hearing, cognitive/emotional, mobility, or visual disabilities), ages 14 to 18, M age = 15.5. Tournament play was in four divisions, one for each disability, with rules and skills modified accordingly. Quantitative and qualitative data collected afterwards revealed only one significant difference between genders and no significant differences between participants with and without disabilities on the other sportsmanship behaviors (competition, help with skill, equity, fair, effort). Except for ratings on perceived help with skills, sportsmanship ratings were relatively high, ranging from 3.07 to 3.56 on a 4-point scale. Perceived learning outcomes pertained to increased understanding of individual differences and sportsmanship.

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Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt

’ emotional intelligence, coping strategies, and sideline behaviors during their child’s soccer games. Note. Positive paths in continuous lines and negative paths in dashed lines. Methods Participants During an international youth soccer tournament, 232 parents (120 mothers, 110 fathers; 2 participants did

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Charlotte L. Edwardson and Trish Gorely

This study examined the relationship between activity-related parenting practices and children’s objectively measured physical activity (PA) in 117 UK children (mean age 8.3 ± 0.95). No significant gender differences in the mean level of activity support were identified although it was found that mothers and fathers favored different activity-related parenting practices. Mothers provided higher levels of limiting sedentary behavior for both boys and girls compared with fathers as well as higher levels of logistic support for girls than fathers. Results showed that for boys, paternal explicit modeling was significantly associated with MVPA (r = .31) and VPA (r = .37). Overall, mothers and fathers favored different activity-related parenting practices when encouraging their children to be active and explicit modeling from fathers appears to be important in shaping physical activity in boys.

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Emily L. Mailey, Deirdre Dlugonski, Wei-Wen Hsu and Michelle Segar

media sites and by a university faculty/staff e-mail announcement. Participants were informed that it was a study of physical activity among parents. Any mother or father of children age 16 and younger (ie, the ages at which children are dependent on their parents for care and transportation) was

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Megan L. Babkes and Maureen R. Weiss

This study examined the relationship between children’s perceptions of parental influence and their psychosocial responses to competitive soccer participation. Female (n = 114) and male (n = 113) athletes completed self-reports of soccer competence, enjoyment, intrinsic motivation, and parents’ influence on their participation. Mothers (n = 160) and fathers (n = 123) reported their own attitudes and behaviors toward their child’s participation. Regression analyses revealed that mothers and fathers who were perceived as positive exercise role models, who had more positive beliefs about their child’s competency, and who gave more frequent positive contingent responses to performance successes were associated with athletes who had higher perceived competence, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation. Children who also perceived their fathers as being more involved in their soccer participation and exerting lower amounts of pressure to perform had more positive psychosocial responses. However, a nonsignificant relationship was found for mother and father reported influence with children’s psychosocial responses.